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Chapter 1 Flashcards & Key Terms

behavioral intervention
An approach to finding relations between body variables and behavioral variables that involves intervening in the behavior of an organism and looking for resultant changes in body structure or function.
biological psychology
Also called behavioral neuroscience. The study of the biological bases of psychological processes and behavior.
consciousness
The state of awareness of one’s own existence and experience.
conserved
In the context of evolution, referring to a trait that is passed on from a common ancestor to two or more descendant species.
correlation
The covariation of two measures.
dependent variable
The factor that an experimenter measures to monitor a change in response to changes in an independent variable.
dualism
The notion, promoted by René Descartes, that the mind is subject only to spiritual interactions, while the body is subject only to material interactions.
independent variable
The factor that is manipulated by an experimenter.
levels of analysis
The scope of experimental approaches. A scientist may try to understand behavior by monitoring molecules, nerve cells, brain regions, or social environments, or some combination of these levels of analysis.
neuron
Also called nerve cell. The basic unit of the nervous system.
neuroplasticity or neural plasticity
The ability of the nervous system to change in response to experience or the environment.
neuroscience
The study of the nervous system.
ontogeny
The process by which an individual changes in the course of its lifetime—that is, grows up and grows old.
phrenology
The belief that bumps on the skull reflect enlargements of brain regions responsible for certain behavioral faculties.
reductionism
The scientific strategy of breaking a system down into increasingly smaller parts in order to understand it.
somatic intervention
An approach to finding relations between body variables and behavioral variables that involves manipulating body structure or function and looking for resultant changes in behavior.
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