Chapter 5 Flashcards & Key Terms

17β-estradiol or estradiol
The primary type of estrogen that is secreted by the ovary.
adrenal cortex
The outer rind of the adrenal gland.
adrenal gland
An endocrine gland atop the kidney.
adrenal medulla
The inner core of the adrenal gland.
adrenocorticoids
Also called adrenal steroids. A class of steroid hormones that are secreted by the adrenal cortex.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
A tropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that controls the production and release of hormones of the adrenal cortex.
aldosterone
A mineralocorticoid hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, that induces the kidneys to conserve sodium ions.
allomone
A chemical signal that is released outside the body by one species and affects the behavior of other species.
amine hormones
Also called monoamine hormones. A class of hormones, each composed of a single amino acid that has been modified into a related molecule, such as melatonin or epinephrine.
androgens
A class of hormones that includes testosterone and other male hormones.
androstenedione
The chief sex hormone secreted by the human adrenal cortex.
anterior pituitary or adenohypophysis
The front division of the pituitary gland; secretes tropic hormones.
arginine vasopressin (AVP) or vasopressin
Also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH). A peptide hormone from the posterior pituitary that promotes water conservation.
autocrine
Referring to a signal that is secreted by a cell into its environment and that feeds back to the same cell.
autoradiography
A histological technique that shows the distribution of radioactive chemicals in tissues.
castration
Removal of the gonads, usually the testes.
corpora lutea
The structures formed from collapsed ovarian follicles subsequent to ovulation. The corpora lutea are a major source of progesterone.
cortisol
A glucocorticoid stress hormone of the adrenal cortex.
cretinism
Also called congenital hypothyroidism. Reduced stature and intellectual disability caused by thyroid deficiency during early development.
Cushing’s syndrome
A condition in which levels of adrenal glucocorticoids are abnormally high.
cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, or cAMP)
A second messenger activated in target cells in response to synaptic or hormonal stimulation.
cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP, or cGMP)
A second messenger activated in target cells in response to synaptic or hormonal stimulation.
endocrine gland
A gland that secretes products into the bloodstream to act on distant targets.
endocrine
Referring to glands that release chemicals to the interior of the body. These glands secrete the principal hormones.
epinephrine or adrenaline
A compound that acts both as a hormone (secreted by the adrenal medulla under the control of the sympathetic nervous system) and as a synaptic transmitter.
estrogens
A class of steroid hormones produced by female gonads.
exocrine gland
A gland whose secretions exit the body via ducts.
follicles
Ovarian structures containing immature ova.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
A gonadotropin, named for its actions on ovarian follicles.
glucocorticoids
A class of steroid hormones, released by the adrenal cortex, that affect carbohydrate metabolism and inflammation.
goiter
A swelling of the thyroid gland resulting from iodine deficiency.
gonadotropin
An anterior pituitary hormone that selectively stimulates the cells of the gonads to produce sex steroids and gametes.
gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH)
A hypothalamic peptide hormone that reduces gonadotropin secretion by inhibiting the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
A hypothalamic hormone that controls the release of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary.
gonads
The sexual organs (ovaries in females, testes in males), which produce gametes for reproduction.
growth hormone (GH)
Also called somatotropin or somatotropic hormone. A tropic hormone, secreted by the anterior pituitary, that influences the growth of cells and tissues.
hormone
A chemical secreted by an endocrine gland that is conveyed by the bloodstream and regulates target organs or tissues.
hypophyseal portal system
A duplex system of capillaries spanning between the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus and the secretory tissue of the anterior pituitary.
immunocytochemistry (ICC)
A method for detecting a particular protein in tissues in which an antibody recognizes and binds to the protein and then chemical methods are then used to leave a visible reaction product around each antibody.
in situ hybridization
A method for detecting particular RNA transcripts in tissue sections by providing a nucleotide probe that is complementary to, and will therefore hybridize with, the transcript of interest.
kisspeptin
A hypothalamic peptide hormone that increases gonadotropin secretion by facilitating the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
knockout organism
An individual in which a particular gene has been disabled by an experimenter.
luteinizing hormone (LH)
A gonadotropin, named for its stimulatory effects on the ovarian corpora lutea.
median eminence
Midline feature on the base of the brain marking the point at which the infundibulum exits the hypothalamus to connect to the pituitary. Contains elements of the hypophyseal portal system.
melatonin
An amine hormone that is released by the pineal gland.
milk letdown reflex
The reflexive release of milk in response to suckling, or to stimuli associated with suckling.
mineralocorticoids
A class of steroid hormones, released by the adrenal cortex, that affect ion concentrations in body tissues.
negative feedback
The property by which some of the output of a system feeds back to reduce the effect of input signals.
neurocrine
Referring to secretory functions of neurons, especially pertaining to synaptic transmission.
neuromodulator
A substance that influences the activity of synaptic transmitters.
neuropeptide
Also called peptide neurotransmitter. A peptide that is used by neurons for signaling.
neurosecretory cell or neuroendocrine cell
A neuron that releases hormones into local or systemic circulation.
nongenomic effect
An effect of a steroid hormone that is not mediated by direct changes in gene expression.
norepinephrine (NE) or noradrenaline
A neurotransmitter produced and released by sympathetic postganglionic neurons to accelerate organ activity.
oral contraceptive
A birth control pill, typically consisting of steroid hormones to prevent ovulation.
ovaries
The female gonads, which produce eggs for reproduction.
oxytocin
A hormone, released from the posterior pituitary, that triggers milk letdown in the nursing female.
paracrine
Referring to cellular communication in which a chemical signal diffuses to nearby target cells through the intermediate extracellular space.
pheromone
A chemical signal that is released outside the body of an animal and affects other members of the same species.
phosphoinositides
A class of common second-messenger compounds in post-synaptic cells.
pineal gland
A secretory gland in the brain midline; the source of melatonin release.
pituitary gland or hypophysis
A small, complex endocrine gland located in a socket at the base of the skull.
pituitary stalk or infundibulum
A thin piece of tissue that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus.
posterior pituitary or neurohypophysis
The rear division of the pituitary gland.
progesterone
The primary type of progestin secreted by the ovary.
progestins
A major class of steroid hormones that are produced by the ovary, including progesterone.
prolactin
A protein hormone, produced by the anterior pituitary, that promotes mammary development for lactation in female mammals.
protein hormones
Also called peptide hormones. A class of hormones, molecules of which consist of a string of amino acids.
psychosocial dwarfism
Reduced stature caused by stress early in life that inhibits deep sleep.
radioimmunoassay (RIA)
A technique that uses antibodies to measure the concentration of a substance, such as a hormone, in blood.
receptor isoform
A version of a receptor protein (in this context, a hormone receptor) with slight differences in structure that give it different functional properties. Conceptually similar to a receptor subtype.
releasing hormones
A class of hormones, produced in the hypothalamus, that traverse the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system to control the pituitary’s release of tropic hormones.
second messenger
A slow-acting substance in a target cell that amplifies the effects of synaptic or hormonal activity and regulates activity within the target cell.
sex steroids
Steroid hormones secreted by the gonads: androgens, estrogens, and progestins.
somatomedins
A group of proteins, released from the liver in response to growth hormone, that aid body growth and maintenance.
steroid hormones
A class of hormones, each of which is composed of four interconnected rings of carbon atoms.
steroid receptor cofactors
Proteins that affect the cell’s response when a steroid hormone binds its receptor.
testes
The male gonads, which produce sperm and androgenic steroid hormones.
testosterone
A hormone, produced by male gonads, that controls a variety of bodily changes that become visible at puberty.
thyroid gland
An endocrine gland, located in the throat, that regulates cellular metabolism throughout the body.
thyroid hormones
Two hormones, triiodothyronine and thyroxine (also called tetraiodothyronine), released from the thyroid gland that have widespread effects, including growth and maintenance of the brain.
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
A tropic hormone, released by the anterior pituitary gland, that signals the thyroid gland to secrete its hormones.
thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
A hypothalamic hormone that regulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary.
transcription factor
A substance that binds to recognition sites on DNA and alters the rate of expression of particular genes.
tropic hormones
A class of anterior pituitary hormones that affect the secretion of other endocrine glands.
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