Home :: Chapter 19 :: Flashcards

Chapter 19 Flashcards & Key Terms

agnosia
The inability to recognize objects, despite being able to describe them in terms of form and color; may occur after localized brain damage.
agraphia
The inability to write.
alexia
The inability to read.
angular gyrus
A brain region in which strokes can lead to word blindness.
anomia
The inability to name persons or objects readily.
aphasia
An impairment in language understanding and/or production that is caused by brain injury.
arcuate fasciculus
A tract connecting Wernicke’s speech area to Broca’s speech area.
astereognosis
The inability to recognize objects by touching and feeling them.
Broca’s area
A region of the frontal lobe of the brain that is involved in the production of speech.
chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)
Also called dementia pugilistica or punch-drunk. The dementia that develops in boxers; it is especially prominent in successful boxers because they participate in more bouts.
conduction aphasia
An impairment in the repetition of words and sentences.
constraint-induced movement therapy
A therapy for recovery of movement after stroke or injury in which the person’s unaffected limb is constrained while he is required to perform tasks with the affected limb.
crystallization
The final stage of birdsong formation, in which fully formed adult song is achieved.
deep dyslexia
Acquired dyslexia in which the patient reads a word as another word that is semantically related.
dichotic presentation
The simultaneous delivery of different stimuli to both the right and the left ears at the same time.
dyslexia
A reading disorder attributed to brain impairment. Acquired dyslexia occurs as a result of injury or disease. Developmental dyslexia is associated with brain abnormalities present from birth.
ectopia
Something out of place—for example, clusters of neurons seen in unusual positions in the cortex of someone suffering from dyslexia.
embryonic stem cell
A cell, derived from an embryo, that has the capacity to form any type of tissue that a donor might produce.
fluent aphasia or Wernicke\'s aphasia
A language impairment characterized by fluent, meaningless speech and little language comprehension; related to damage in Wernicke’s area.
fusiform gyrus
A region on the inferior surface of the cortex, at the junction of temporal and occipital lobes, that has been associated with recognition of faces.
global aphasia
The total loss of ability to understand language, or to speak, read, or write.
grammar
All of the rules for usage of a particular language.
hemiparesis
Weakness of one side of the body.
hemiplegia
Partial paralysis involving one side of the body.
lateralization
The tendency for the right and left halves of a system to differ from one another.
micropolygyria
A condition of the brain in which small regions are characterized by more gyri than usual.
morpheme
The smallest grammatical unit of a language; a word or meaningful part of a word.
motor theory of language
The theory proposing that the left-hemisphere language zones are motor control systems that are concerned with both the precise production and the perception of the extremely complex movements that go into speech.
neologism
An entirely novel word, sometimes produced by a patient with aphasia.
nonfluent aphasia or Broca\'s aphasia
A language impairment characterized by difficulty with speech production but not with language comprehension; related to damage in Broca’s area.
nonfluent speech
Talking with considerable effort, short sentences, and the absence of the usual melodic character of conversational speech.
paraphasia
A symptom of aphasia that is distinguished by the substitution of a word by a sound, an incorrect word, an unintended word, or a neologism (a meaningless word).
phoneme
A sound that is produced for language.
planum temporale
A region of superior temporal cortex adjacent to the primary auditory area.
prosody
The perception of emotional tone-of-voice aspects of language.
prosopagnosia
Also called face blindness. A condition characterized by the inability to recognize faces. Acquired prosopagnosia is caused by damage to the brain, particularly the fusiform gyrus. Developmental (or congenital) prosopagnosia is the result of brain defects present from birth.
recovery of function
The recovery of behavioral capacity following brain damage from stroke or injury.
semantics
The meanings or interpretation of words and sentences in a language.
sensitive period
The period during development in which an organism can be permanently altered by a particular experience or treatment.
split-brain individual
An individual whose corpus callosum has been severed, halting communication between the right and left hemispheres.
surface dyslexia
Acquired dyslexia in which the patient seems to attend only to the fine details of reading.
syntax
The grammatical rules for constructing phrases and sentences in a language.
syrinx
The vocal organ in birds.
tachistoscope test
A test in which stimuli are very briefly exposed in either the left or right visual half-field.
Wada test
A test in which a short-lasting anesthetic is delivered into one carotid artery to determine which cerebral hemisphere principally mediates language.
Wernicke's area
A region of temporoparietal cortex in the brain that is involved in the perception and production of speech.
Williams syndrome
A disorder characterized by fluent linguistic function, but poor performance on standard IQ tests and great difficulty with spatial processing.
Go