Links for Keyword: Stem Cells

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By Rob Stein Doctors have injected millions of human embryonic stem cells into a patient partially paralyzed by a spinal cord injury, marking the beginning of the first carefully designed attempt to test the promising but controversial therapy, officials announced Monday. The patient was treated Friday at the Shepherd Center, a 132-bed hospital in Atlanta that specializes in spinal cord and brain injuries, according to announcement by the hospital and Geron Corp. of Menlo Park, Calif., which is sponsoring the research. The hospital is one of seven sites participating in the study, which is primarily aimed at testing whether the therapy is safe. Doctors will also conduct tests to see whether the treatment restores sensation or enables the patient to regain movement. No additional information about the first patient was released. The milestone was welcomed by scientists eager to finally move the research from the laboratory to the clinic, as well as by advocates for patients and by patients hoping for cures. Although the cells have been tested in animals, and some clinics around the world claim to offer therapies using human embryonic stem cells, the trial is the first to have been vetted by a government entity and aimed at carefully evaluating the strategy. After repeated delays, the Food and Drug Administration gave the go-ahead in July. But the move was criticized by those with moral objections to any research using cells from human embryos, and it is raising concern even among many proponents. Some argue that the experiments are premature, others question whether they are ethical, and many fear that the trials risk disaster for the field if anything goes awry. © 2010 The Washington Post Company

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity; Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System; Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 14549 - Posted: 10.12.2010

By Steve Connor, Science Editor A patient who was partially paralysed as a result of an injury to the spinal cord has become the first person to be injected with millions of stem cells derived from early human embryos created by IVF. Geron Corporation, based in Menlo Park, California, said that it has enrolled the first of several patients in a pioneering study of embryonic stem cells. The phase one clinical trial will attempt to assess whether the novel treatment is safe, rather than effective. Embryonic stem cells have the proven ability to develop into any of the 200 or more specialised tissues of the body, from insulin-making pancreatic cells to the nerve cells of the brain. Scientists believe they could be used to treat many incurable conditions, from spinal injury to Parkinson's disease. However, there are concerns that the reality may not live up to the hype. As yet, there has been little clinical demonstration that human embryonic stem cells are safe, let alone effective, with concerns that they may lead to cancerous tumours. Early in 2009, Geron was given a licence by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to carry out the first clinical trial on spinal cord patients. But later in the year the company had to carry out further tests when the FDA became concerned about the growth of cysts in some laboratory animals injected with embryonic stem cells. ©independent.co.uk

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity; Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System; Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 14546 - Posted: 10.12.2010

By Rob Stein Scientists have invented an efficient way to produce apparently safe alternatives to human embryonic stem cells without destroying embryos, a long-sought step toward bypassing the moral morass surrounding one of the most promising fields in medicine. A team of researchers at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute in Boston published a series of experiments Thursday showing that synthetic biological signals can quickly reprogram ordinary skin cells into entities that appear virtually identical to embryonic stem cells. Moreover, the same strategy can then turn those cells into ones that could be used for transplants. "This is going to be very exciting to the research community," said Derrick J. Rossi of the Children's Hospital Boston, who led the research published in the journal Cell Stem Cell. "We now have an experimental paradigm for generating patient-specific cells highly efficiently and safely and also taking those cells to clinically useful cell types." Scientists hope stem cells will lead to cures for diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart attacks and many other ailments because they can turn into almost any tissue in the body, potentially providing an invaluable source of cells to replace those damaged by disease or injury. But the cells can be obtained only by destroying days-old embryos. © 2010 The Washington Post Company

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 14515 - Posted: 10.02.2010

By Tina Hesman Saey Pod people may look a lot like the real thing, but — as the fictional town of Santa Mira finds out in Invasion of the Body Snatchers — they are disastrously different. The same may be true for reprogrammed stem cells. These cells are designed to mimic embryonic stem cells and are grown in lab dishes by researchers, not pods by aliens. But scientists now worry that reprogrammed cells, like the duplicates that invaded Santa Mira, may not be wholly satisfactory replacements. New research suggests that important differences may separate the two kinds of cells. Such differences could impair the ability of reprogrammed cells to make other cell types, which doctors hope to use to repair diseased and damaged tissues. Other limitations of the reprogramming process could leave transplanted cells more susceptible to diseases such as cancer, some scientists fear. Every lab has its own recipe to convert mature skin and blood cells to a reprogrammed state — and comparisons show that some of these procedures work better than others. Time and patience, one study finds, may help erase lingering differences between the superbly flexible embryonic stem cells and their lab-made substitutes. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they can become any type of cell. But isolating stem cells destroys the embryo from which they come, raising ethical concerns and funding barriers. © Society for Science & the Public 2000 - 2010

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 14495 - Posted: 09.27.2010

Andy Coghlan Men’s testicles may provide an “ethical” source of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), suggest new experiments in mice. A team in Germany has successfully grown mouse ESC-like cells from spermatagonial stem cells which normally turn into sperm. The ESC-like cells can be grown into all tissues of the mouse body, suggesting that if the same could be done in men, it would provide patients with a source of tissue-matched cells for repairing any damaged organs or tissue. So far, all existing colonies of human ESCs have been derived from surplus human embryos, leftover from infertility treatments. Because a human embryo is sacrificed in the process, many religious groups oppose such research, especially in the US where President George W Bush has placed heavy restrictions on federal stem cell researchers. The discovery that cells which behave like ESCs can now be obtained from adult mice may now open up the possibility of a similar “ethical” source from grown men. “We’re in the process of doing this in humans, and we’re optimistic,” says Gerd Hasenfuss of the Georg-August University of Göttingen, Germany, and head of the team which pioneered the breakthrough. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 8706 - Posted: 06.24.2010

by Ewen Callaway In a feat of cellular alchemy, connective tissue from a mouse's tail has been transformed directly into working brain cells. Ordinarily, so drastic a makeover would require the creation of so-called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and then turning these into neurons, an inefficient process that can take weeks. Marius Wernig and colleagues at Stanford University in California discovered that inserting a cocktail of three genes into fibroblasts turns them directly into neurons in just days. "The real surprise was that this conversion is extremely efficient," he says. By many indications, these neurons are the real deal. Under a microscope, they look like a kind of mouse brain cell found in the cortex and they can form synapses to send and receive signals from others. Wernig expects that the cells will integrate into a mouse's brain - an experiment that's in the works. If they do, cells produced using a similar process might one day be used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease in humans. Because such cells are derived from adult cells, not pluripotent cells – which have the potential to form a kind of tumour called a teratoma – they might be safer than iPS cells. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 13723 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Patrick Barry In an advance that could solve many of the ethical and technical issues involved in stem cell research, two groups of scientists have independently converted human skin cells directly into stem cells without creating or destroying embryos. "We are now in a position to be able to generate patient- and disease-specific stem cells without using human eggs or embryos," Shinya Yamanaka, leader of one of the research teams at Kyoto University in Japan, said in an e-mail interview. Preliminary tests show that the newly created cells can develop into nerve cells, heart cells, or any other kind of cell in the body. Previously, only stem cells taken from early embryos had this kind of flexibility, called pluripotency. Scientists have suggested that such embryonic stem cells could be used for learning about genetic diseases, testing new drugs on cells grown in the lab, or growing healthy cells for therapeutic transplantation. Producing embryonic stem cells has become controversial, however, because the process destroys the embryo. "[Our] whole procedure doesn't involve any embryo," says Junying Yu, leader of the other research group, at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. "This approach is certainly going to get rid of this [ethical] problem." ©2007 Science Service.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 11002 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Scientists have managed to protect and regenerate the part of the brain that is damaged in Parkinson’s disease, by genetically engineering cells to bypass the blood-brain barrier. The study was conducted in animals, but the approach could one day be used to treat brain conditions in humans, the researchers say. The blood-brain barrier protects the brain from harmful substances, but also prevents drugs from entering, so experimental treatments have involved injecting drugs directly into the brain. Now Clive Svensden at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, US, and colleagues have devised an alternative – implanting cells that act as a Trojan horse, churning out the drug from inside the brain’s fortress. The team took human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) from fetal tissue at 10 to 15 weeks’ gestation. These have a lot in common with stem cells, though they have already differentiated into specific neural cells. The researchers genetically modified the cells to produce a growth molecule called glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). This is produced naturally by the brain at around eight weeks’ gestation in humans, but by 20 weeks it has all gone. Previous studies show that GDNF increases the survival and function of dopamine-producing cells, which are progressively destroyed in Parkinson’s disease. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 8312 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Four sugar-coated faces made by stem cells as they differentiate into brain cells during development have been identified by scientists. These unique expressions of sugar on the cell surface may one day enable stem cell therapy to repair brain injury or disease by helping stem cells navigate the relative “jungle” of the adult brain, says Dr. Robert K. Yu, director of the Institute of Neuroscience and the Institute for Molecular Medicine and Genetics at the Medical College of Georgia. “These glycoconjugate markers are like specific addresses that characterize the cell at that particular moment. We call them stage-specific embryonic antigens,” says Dr. Yu of recognition molecules that assist in the unbelievably rapid assemblage of 100 billion to 200 billion cells into a brain in nine months. The four compounds – two glycolipids, GD3 and O-acetylated GD3, and two glycoproteins, Stage-specific Embryonic Antigen-1 and Human Natural Killer Cell Antigen 1 – were known, but their role in helping cells migrate where and when needed was unknown. Copyright 2005 Medical College of Georgia

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 7858 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Cell replacement therapy offers a novel and powerful medical technology. A type of embryonic stem cell, called a neural crest stem cell, that persists into adulthood in hair follicles was recently discovered by Maya Sieber-Blum, Ph.D., of the Medical College of Wisconsin, Milos Grim, MD Ph.D., of Charles University Prague, and their collaborators. The discovery – reported recently in Developmental Dynamics, a journal of the American Association of Anatomists published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. – may in many instances provide a non-controversial substitute for embryonic stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are unique, because they can differentiate into any cell type of the body. Their use, however, raises ethical concerns because embryos are being destroyed in the process. In contrast, neural crest stem cells from adults have several advantages: similar to embryonic stem cells, they have the innate ability to differentiate into many diverse cell types; they are easily accessible in the skin of adults; and the patient's own neural crest stem cells could be used for cell therapy. The latter avoids both rejection of the implant and graft-versus-host disease. Studies in the mouse showed that neural crest stem cells from adult hair follicles are able to differentiate into neurons, nerve supporting cells, cartilage/bone cells, smooth muscle cells, and pigment cells. Preliminary data indicate that equivalent stem cells reside in human hair follicles.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 6564 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Three years ago Elisabeth Bryant believed she would be blind for the rest of her life. “I couldn’t see anything,” she says. Now, although her vision is not perfect, she can see well enough to read, play computer games and check emails. Bryant has retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disease that has blinded four generations of her family. What has saved the sight in one of her eyes is a transplant of a sheet of retinal cells. The vision in this eye has improved from 20:800 to 20:84 in the two-and-a-half years since the transplant – a remarkable transformation. So far, six patients with either advanced retinitis pigmentosa or macular degeneration have had similar transplants. Together, these degenerative diseases are the biggest cause of blindness in rich countries, affecting tens of millions of people. While Bryant’s improvement is the most dramatic, four other patients have also had good results. When New Scientist print edition (1 February, 2003) reported the initial results of these retinal transplants, experts cautioned that the results could be due to the rescue effect: a short-term improvement triggered by the release of growth factors after eye surgery. That appears increasingly unlikely, because the rescue effect usually lasts only months. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 6339 - Posted: 06.24.2010

UCSF researchers have made a notable advance in the effort to illuminate the existence of adult stem cells in the human brain, identifying a ribbon of stem cells that potentially could be used to develop strategies for regenerating damaged brain tissue - and that could offer new insight into the most common type of brain tumor. The study, conducted by investigators in the UCSF Department of Neurological Surgery, is the cover story in the Feb. 19 issue of Nature. The researchers conducted their study on brain specimens (from neurological resections and autopsies) containing the lining of the brain's fluid-filled cavity, a region known as the subventricular zone. There, they discovered a sheet of the brain's most ubiquitous cell, the astrocyte - traditionally thought of as a supportive cell for neurons in the adult brain – and determined in cell culture studies that the cell has the capacity to function as a neural stem cell. They also detected fresh, young neurons within the astrocytic region that likely are the progeny of these stem cells, the researchers say

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 5003 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Scientists have created an unlimited supply of a type of nerve cell found in the spinal cord – a self-renewing cell line that offers a limitless supply of human nerve cells in the laboratory. Such a supply has long been one goal of neurologists anxious to replace dead or dying cells with healthy ones in a host of neurological diseases. In this study, appearing in the March issue of Nature Biotechnology, the scientists then used the cells to partially repair damaged spinal cords in laboratory animals, re-growing small sections of the spinal cord that had been damaged. Doctors emphasize that tests in people with damaged spinal cords or other neurological conditions are a long ways off. The researchers, led by neurologist Steven Goldman, M.D., Ph.D., of the University of Rochester Medical Center, created the unique cells by introducing a gene called telomerase, which is responsible for the ability of stem cells to live indefinitely, into more specialized "progenitor" cells. In normal development, these progenitor cells give rise to very specific types of spinal neurons, but they do so for only short periods of time, because they lack the ability to continuously divide. With the newly added telomerase gene, the spinal progenitor cells were able to continuously divide while still producing only specific types of neurons. The outcome was a line of immortal progenitor cells, capable of churning out human spinal neurons indefinitely.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 4980 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Research continues in an effort to determine if these neural cells can be transplanted to treat stroke, brain tumors and neurodegenerative disorders LOS ANGELES – Researchers at Cedars-Sinai's Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute have for the first time demonstrated that stem cells from whole adult bone marrow can be differentiated into several types of cells of the central nervous system. A long-term objective of this research is to determine if these neural stem cells can be transplanted to treat stroke, brain tumors and neurodegenerative disorders. This capability would give physicians a renewable source of neural progenitor cells, available from a patient's bone marrow instead of the brain, and without the ethical and tissue-rejection issues associated with the use of fetal stem cells. Results of the study appear as the cover article of the December issue of the journal Experimental Neurology. While this study was conducted in rats, similar optimistic results have been seen in human tissue, according to senior author John S. Yu, M.D., Co-director of the Comprehensive Brain Tumor Program at the Neurosurgical Institute.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 3202 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Scientists have identified a critical, new stem cell protein – a marked advance in the elucidation of the molecular blueprint of stem cells. Drs. Robert Tsai and Ronald McKay at the NIH have discovered a novel gene, called nucleostemin, whose encoded protein is necessary for maintaining the proliferative capacity of embryonic and adult stem cells, and possibly some types of cancer cells. Their report is published in the December 1 issue of the scientific journal Genes & Development. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent progenitor cells that can differentiate into all of the cell types of the body. Adult stem cells, in contrast, have a less versatile potential: Their differentiation is generally restricted to the cell types of a specific tissue (although recent work has expanded the previously known range of adult stem cell differentiation potential).

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 3091 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Stem cell research is vital to finding cures for blinding diseases
BOSTON - Stem cell research, which holds promise for treatments of a wide variety of diseases, is just as promising for curing some forms of blindness, vision scientists say. In diseases of both the retina – the back of the eye – and the cornea – the front of the eye – stem cells derived from adult or postnatal animals show remarkable ability to replace damaged cells that may be the cause of visual impairment.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 435 - Posted: 06.24.2010

New studies in mice have shown that immature stem cells that proliferate to form brain tissues can function for at least a year — most of the life span of a mouse — and give rise to multiple types of neural cells, not just neurons. The discovery may bode well for the use of these neural stem cells to regenerate brain tissue lost to injury or disease. Alexandra L. Joyner, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator at New York University School of Medicine, and her former postdoctoral fellow, Sohyun Ahn, who is now at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, published their findings in the October 6, 2005, issue of the journal Nature. They said the technique they used to trace the fate of stem cells could also be used to understand the roles of stem cells in tissue repair and cancer progression. Joyner said that previous studies by her lab and others had shown that a regulatory protein called Sonic hedgehog (Shh) orchestrates the activity of an array of genes during development of the brain. Scientists also knew that Shh played a role in promoting the proliferation of neural stem cells. However, Joyner said the precise role of Shh in regulating stem cell self-renewal — the process whereby stem cells divide and maintain an immature state that enables them to continue to generate new cells — was unknown. In the studies published in Nature, Joyner and Ahn developed genetic techniques that enabled them to label neural stem cells in adult mice that are responding to Shh signaling at any time point so they could study which stem cells respond to Shh. © 2005 Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 7997 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Katie Greene Researchers have now shown how a trio of proteins controls whether an embryonic stem cell takes an irreversible step toward developing into specific tissues or retains its raw potential to become a blood cell, bone cell, brain cell, or any other kind of cell. Stem cells' unique capacity to develop into any type of cell—a property known as pluripotency—underlies their medical promise. Researchers argue that this trait could someday lead, for example, to lab-grown tissue and organs that would be useful for transplants. The scientists set out to determine what genes define a stem cell. "We thought if we could uncover this network of genes, then we could see how pluripotency is established," says Laurie A. Boyer of the Whitehead Institute in Cambridge, Mass. And with knowledge of the mechanics behind pluripotency, she says, scientists might learn to reprogram a mature cell so that it, too, could have the pluripotency of a stem cell. Boyer and her collaborators investigated three proteins known to play defining roles in keeping stem cells from developing into a specific cell type. The proteins, dubbed Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog, are classified as transcription factors. As such, they bind to specific genes and regulate the genes' activities. Scientists didn't know how these three transcription factors maintain stem cell pluripotency. ©2005 Science Service.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 7910 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Jeff Miller MADISON, Wis. — Seven years ago, when James Thomson became the first scientist to isolate and culture human embryonic stem cells, he knew he was stepping into a whirlwind of controversy. He just didn't expect the whirlwind to last this long. In fact, the moral, ethical and political controversy is still revving up — in Washington, where federal lawmakers are considering a bill to provide more federal support for embryonic stem cell research; and in Madison, Thomson's base of operations, where Wisconsin legislators are considering new limits on stem cell research. Thomson, a developmental biologist and veterinarian at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, made history in 1998 when he and fellow researchers derived the first embryonic stem cell lines from frozen human embryos. The breakthrough came after the news that a sheep named Dolly was born as the first cloned mammal — and together, the two announcements hinted at a brave new world of medical possibilities and moral debates. Since then, five of the university's cell lines have been approved for federal funding under the terms of the Bush administration's stem cell compromise of August 2001. Other cell lines have been derived from frozen embryos with private funding, and the bill approved by the House last month would open the way for more. © 2005 MSNBC.com

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 7554 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News — Scientists have announced that they have coaxed all three primary brain cells to grow in tissue cultures from a type of cell found deep in the brain. The researchers speculated that related medical therapies, such as the ability to repair or replace brain cells damaged by head trauma or diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's, could occur within five years. "The field of regenerative medicine is moving so quickly," said Dennis Steindler, who led the research. "New discoveries happen every day, so I would like to offer hope to people with such conditions that they could benefit from related breakthroughs even sooner (than the estimated five-year period)." Steindler, who is executive director of the University of Florida's McKnight Brain Institute, added, "With the new brain cell technology we have created a method, a protocol and a model that enable us to get stem-like brain cells into a dish, to look at them and to induce them to differentiate." Findings will be published in an upcoming Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Steindler and his team extracted glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP+) cells from a region called the subventricular zone, which lies deep within the brain. They worked with cells from adult mice, but say humans possess these exact same cells. Copyright © 2005 Discovery Communications Inc.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 7497 - Posted: 06.24.2010