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Allison Aubrey We might not be able to remember every stressful episode of our childhood. But the emotional upheaval we experience as kids — whether it's the loss of a loved one, the chronic stress of economic insecurity, or social interactions that leave us tearful or anxious — may have a lifelong impact on our health. In fact, a study published this week in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology indicates that emotional distress during childhood — even in the absence of high stress during adult years — can increase the risk of developing heart disease and metabolic disorders such as diabetes in adulthood. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Shots - Health News Take The ACE Quiz — And Learn What It Does And Doesn't Mean "We know that the childhood period is really important for setting up trajectories of health and well-being," explains Ashley Winning, an author of the study and postdoctoral research fellow in social and behavioral sciences at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. To assess the connection between childhood stress and the risk of disease, Winning and her colleagues analyzed data from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study, a long-running study that documented the diets, habits and emotional health of thousands of British children born during the same week that year. As the children entered school, the classroom became the laboratory for observation. © 2015 NPR

Keyword: Stress; Development of the Brain
Link ID: 21460 - Posted: 09.30.2015

By Nicholas Bakalar Agitation and aggression are common in Alzheimer’s patients, and there is no known safe and effective treatment. Now researchers report that a combination drug already in use for treating certain neurological problems may be a better remedy. Dextromethorphan is a cough suppressant commonly found in over-the-counter cough medicines, and quinidine is a drug used to control heart rhythm disorders. In combination, they are used to treat certain neurological disorders involving involuntary movement of the facial muscles. The scientists randomized 152 Alzheimer’s patients to a 10-week course of dextromethorphan-quinidine and 127 to placebo. Researchers then rated them using a well-validated scale that measures aggression and agitation. The study is in the Sept. 22 issue of JAMA. Aggression scores declined to 3.8 from 7.1 in the dextromethorphan-quinidine group and to 5.3 from 7.0 in those who took a placebo. Then the researchers re-randomized those who did not respond to placebo to receive either drugs or placebo, and found similar encouraging results for the drug combination. “Fifty-five percent of the people who were on drugs had a 50 percent reduction in their agitation,” said the lead author, Dr. Jeffrey L. Cummings, director of the Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health. “That’s a lot when a patient is striking and hitting and cussing. There are no currently approved treatments for agitation, and we’re very enthusiastic about this finding.” © 2015 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Alzheimers; Aggression
Link ID: 21459 - Posted: 09.30.2015

By Sarah C. P. Williams Looking at photos of starving refugees or earthquake victims can trigger a visceral sense of empathy. But how, exactly, do we feel others’ agony as our own? A new study suggests that seeing others in pain engages some of the same neural pathways as when we ourselves are in pain. Moreover, both pain and empathy can be reduced by a placebo effect that acts on the same pathways as opioid painkillers, the researchers found. “This study provides one of the most direct demonstrations to date that first-hand pain and pain empathy are functionally related,” says neurobiologist Bernadette Fitzgibbon of Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, who was not involved in the new research. “It’s very exciting.” Previous studies have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans to show that similar areas of the brain are activated when someone is in pain and when they see another person in pain. But overlaps on a brain scan don’t necessarily mean the two function through identical pathways—the shared brain areas could relate to attention or emotional arousal, among other things, rather than pain itself. Social neuroscientist Claus Lamm and colleagues at the University of Vienna took a different approach to test whether pain and empathy are driven by the same pathways. The researchers first divided about 100 people into control or placebo groups. They gave the placebo group a pill they claimed to be an expensive, over-the-counter painkiller, when in fact it was inactive. This well-established placebo protocol is known to function similarly to opioid painkillers, while avoiding the drugs’ side effects. © 2015 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Keyword: Pain & Touch; Emotions
Link ID: 21458 - Posted: 09.29.2015

Sara Reardon The brain’s wiring patterns can shed light on a person’s positive and negative traits, researchers report in Nature Neuroscience1. The finding, published on 28 September, is the first from the Human Connectome Project (HCP), an international effort to map active connections between neurons in different parts of the brain. The HCP, which launched in 2010 at a cost of US$40 million, seeks to scan the brain networks, or connectomes, of 1,200 adults. Among its goals is to chart the networks that are active when the brain is idle; these are thought to keep the different parts of the brain connected in case they need to perform a task. In April, a branch of the project led by one of the HCP's co-chairs, biomedical engineer Stephen Smith at the University of Oxford, UK, released a database of resting-state connectomes from about 460 people between 22 and 35 years old. Each brain scan is supplemented by information on approximately 280 traits, such as the person's age, whether they have a history of drug use, their socioeconomic status and personality traits, and their performance on various intelligence tests. Smith and his colleagues ran a massive computer analysis to look at how these traits varied among the volunteers, and how the traits correlated with different brain connectivity patterns. The team was surprised to find a single, stark difference in the way brains were connected. People with more 'positive' variables, such as more education, better physical endurance and above-average performance on memory tests, shared the same patterns. Their brains seemed to be more strongly connected than those of people with 'negative' traits such as smoking, aggressive behaviour or a family history of alcohol abuse. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group,

Keyword: Brain imaging; Intelligence
Link ID: 21457 - Posted: 09.29.2015

By Kelly Servick Children born to obese mothers arrive already predisposed to obesity and other health problems themselves. Exactly what happens in the uterus to transmit this risk still isn’t clear, but a new study on mice points to the placenta as a key actor. The study shows that a hormone acting on the placenta can protect the offspring of obese mice from being born overweight. It suggests ways to break the cycle of obesity in humans—although other researchers caution there's a long way to go. Researchers discovered decades ago that conditions in the uterus can “program” a fetus to be more susceptible to certain health problems. People conceived during the 1944 famine in the Netherlands, for example, suffered higher rates of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and other problems later in life. Recent animal studies suggest that malnourishment in the womb changes the expression of DNA in ways that can be passed down for generations. But researchers are now increasingly concerned with the opposite problem. Obese women tend to give birth to larger babies with more body fat, and these children are more likely to develop metabolic syndrome—the cluster of conditions including obesity and high blood sugar that can lead to diabetes and heart disease. To probe the roots of fetal “overgrowth,” developmental biologists at the University of Colorado, Denver, looked to the placenta—the whoopee cushion–shaped organ wedged between the fetus and the wall of the uterus, where branching arteries from the umbilical cord take up oxygen and nutrients from the mother’s blood vessels. The placenta “has always been viewed as a passive organ—whatever happens to the mother is translated toward the fetus,” says lead author Irving Aye, now at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom. However, recent research has shown that the placenta is less an indiscriminate drainpipe than a subtle gatekeeper. © 2015 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Keyword: Obesity; Development of the Brain
Link ID: 21456 - Posted: 09.29.2015

By Judith Berck The 73-year-old widow came to see Dr. David Goodman, an assistant professor in the psychiatry and behavioral sciences department at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, after her daughter had urged her to “see somebody” for her increasing forgetfulness. She was often losing her pocketbook and keys and had trouble following conversations, and 15 minutes later couldn’t remember much of what was said. But he did not think she had early Alzheimer’s disease. The woman’s daughter and granddaughter had both been given a diagnosis of A.D.H.D. a few years earlier, and Dr. Goodman, who is also the director of a private adult A.D.H.D. clinical and research center outside of Baltimore, asked about her school days as a teenager. “She told me: ‘I would doodle because I couldn’t pay attention to the teacher, and I wouldn’t know what was going on. The teacher would move me to the front of the class,’ ” Dr. Goodman said, After interviewing her extensively, noting the presence of patterns of impairment that spanned the decades, Dr. Goodman diagnosed A.D.H.D. He prescribed Vyvanse, a short-acting stimulant of the central nervous system. A few weeks later, the difference was remarkable. “She said: ‘I’m surprised, because I’m not misplacing my keys now, and I can remember things better. My mind isn’t wandering off, and I can stay in a conversation. I can do something until I finish it,’ ” Dr. Goodman said. Once seen as a disorder affecting mainly children and young adults, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is increasingly understood to last throughout one’s lifetime. © 2015 The New York Times Company

Keyword: ADHD; Alzheimers
Link ID: 21455 - Posted: 09.29.2015

By Puneet Kollipara The list of health problems that scientists can confidently link to exposure to hormone-disrupting chemicals has grown to include diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity, a new scientific statement suggests. The statement, released today by the Endocrine Society, also adds support to the somewhat controversial idea that even minute doses of these chemicals can interfere with the activity of natural hormones, which play a major role in regulating physiology and behavior. But the report—which updates a similar statement released in 2009—is drawing sharp criticism from the chemical industry. An executive summary of the new statement, which synthesizes 1300 studies on endocrine disrupters, posits that scientists are more confident than ever before in linking these substances to a host of known health issues, including reproductive and developmental problems, thyroid impairment, certain reproductive cancers, and neurodevelopmental problems such as decreased IQ. But studies suggest those links can now be extended to heart and weight problems, and diabetes, says the executive summary's first author, Andrea C. Gore, a professor of pharmacology and toxicology at the University of Texas, Austin. Six years ago, scientists couldn’t make such a strong case for those links, Gore says, because there weren’t enough good studies. “But this has really been an emerging field where there is much stronger evidence now,” Gore told reporters today on a conference call. Still, some toxicologists and industry groups have long disputed the assertion that endocrine disrupters can trigger effects at minimal doses; this idea can be tough to test in lab animals, which are usually exposed to high doses in toxicology studies. © 2015 American Association for the Advancement of Science

Keyword: Hormones & Behavior; Sexual Behavior
Link ID: 21454 - Posted: 09.29.2015

James Gorman Turning certain brain cells on and off with light — a technique called optogenetics — is one of the most important tools in neuroscience. It allows scientists to test basic ideas about how brains work. But because waves of visible light don’t penetrate living tissue well, the technique requires the insertion of a conduit for the light into the brain— a very thin fiber optic cable. For the first time, researchers say, they have done the same with ultrasound, opening the way to a noninvasive way to probe the functions of neurons. They call the technique sonogenetics. They achieved this in a microscopic worm, a creature so simple that it doesn’t have a brain. But it does have neurons, which have a great deal in common with the neurons in more complex animals that make up the brain and nervous system. If the technique works in more complex animals, it would mean a noninvasive way to do basic research, and perhaps even treat brain circuits. “Previous studies have shown if you use ultrasound, you can manipulate the nervous system,” said Sreekanth H. Chalasani of the Salk Institute in San Diego and senior author of a recent report in Nature Communications that describes the research. But, he said, nobody had shown that, with genetic modifications, specific neurons could be targeted. “It’s going to be a viable technique,” said William Tyler, a neuroscientist at Arizona State University, who said the ability to zero in on one neuron or a group of neurons without having to insert anything into the body was “unparalleled.” © 2015 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Brain imaging
Link ID: 21453 - Posted: 09.28.2015

by Bethany Brookshire Last weekend, I ran the Navy-Air Force half-marathon. After pounding pavement for an hour or so, my legs began to feel light. Slightly numb. I felt fantastic. I had to remind myself to run, not to stop and dance, and that singing along to my candy-pop workout music — even at mile 10 — is not socially acceptable. It’s the hope of this euphoria — this runner’s high — that keeps me running. We’re not totally sure what’s responsible for this incredible high. Some studies call out our body’s endorphins. Others point to cannabinoids — chemicals related to the active compound in marijuana. A new study suggests that the appetite hormone leptin may play a role in getting us going. And from an evolutionary perspective, it makes good sense. When our dinner might make a quick getaway, it’s important to link our drive to run with our need to feed. But it’s probably not the whole story. Like many other neurobiological events, the exact recipe for runner’s high is complex and hazy. It takes a whole suite of chemicals to help us get started and to make sure we want to go the distance. Those who get runner’s high know it when they feel it. But a clinical definition is a little more slippery. “I remember someone saying the runner’s high was the moment when the body was disconnected from the brain,” says Francis Chaouloff, who studies running and motivation in mice at the French Institute of Health and Medical Research in Bordeaux. This sense of extreme euphoria, he says, is generally limited to people running or exercising for long periods of time, over many miles or hours. © Society for Science & the Public 2000 - 2015.

Keyword: Obesity; Emotions
Link ID: 21452 - Posted: 09.28.2015

Jon Hamilton A mind-altering drug called ketamine is changing the way some doctors treat depression. Encouraged by research showing that ketamine can relieve even the worst depression in a matter of hours, these doctors are giving the drug to some of their toughest patients. And they're doing this even though ketamine lacks approval from the Food and Drug Administration for treating depression. "It became clear to me that the future of psychiatry was going to include ketamine or derivatives of ketamine," says David Feifel, a professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego, who began administering the drug to patients in 2010. Ketamine was developed as an anesthetic and received FDA approval for this use in 1970. Decades later, it became popular as a psychedelic club drug. And in 2006, a team from the National Institute of Mental Health published a landmark study showing that a single intravenous dose of ketamine produced "robust and rapid antidepressant effects" within a couple of hours. Since then, thousands of depressed patients have received "off-label" treatment with ketamine. One of those patients is Paul, 36, who lives in San Diego and is a patient of Dr. Feifel. We're not using his last name to protect his medical privacy. © 2015 NPR

Keyword: Depression; Drug Abuse
Link ID: 21451 - Posted: 09.28.2015

Neuroscientist Dr. Charles Tator has asked the family of former NHL enforcer Todd Ewen to donate Ewen's brain so he can study it. This week, Ewan's death was ruled a suicide and Tator wants to examine his brain to determine whether it has signs of degeneration. In particular, he's interested in what Ewen's brain may have in common with the other brains of athletes he's studying as part of the Canadian Sports Concussion Project. Brent Bambury speaks with Dr. Tator about how concussions can affect athletes and what big unanswered questions remain when it comes to the links between concussions, brain injury and self-harm. This conversation has been edited for clarity and length. Brent Bambury: You and your team already have examined the brains of eighteen former professional athletes. What do you hope to learn by looking at Todd Ewen's brain? Dr. Charles Tator: Well we want to know if he had C.T.E. In other words, was this the cause of his decline in terms of depression, for example. BB: What is C.T.E. ? CT: Well C.T.E. is chronic traumatic encephalopathy which is a specific type of brain degeneration that occurs after repetitive trauma like multiple concussions. BB: Is that something that you can only determine by examining the brain from a cadaver? CT: Unfortunately, even though we are getting clues about it from other tests like M.R.I., at this point in 2015, you have to do an autopsy to be sure that it's C.T.E. So with the Todd Ewen donation, if we're fortunate enough to have that opportunity to examine his brain, we would want to see if there were any manifestations of these previous concussions that he had in his career. ©2015 CBC/Radio-Canada

Keyword: Brain Injury/Concussion
Link ID: 21450 - Posted: 09.28.2015

By Jane E. Brody Mark Hammel’s hearing was damaged in his 20s by machine gun fire when he served in the Israeli Army. But not until decades later, at 57, did he receive his first hearing aids. “It was very joyful, but also very sad, when I contemplated how much I had missed all those years,” Dr. Hammel, a psychologist in Kingston, N.Y., said in an interview. “I could hear well enough sitting face to face with someone in a quiet room, but in public, with background noise, I knew people were talking, but I had no idea what they were saying. I just stood there nodding my head and smiling. “Eventually, I stopped going to social gatherings. Even driving, I couldn’t hear what my daughter was saying in the back seat. I live in the country, and I couldn’t hear the birds singing. “People with hearing loss often don’t realize what they’re missing,” he said. “So much of what makes us human is social contact, interaction with other human beings. When that’s cut off, it comes with a very high cost.” And the price people pay is much more than social. As Dr. Hammel now realizes, “the capacity to hear is so essential to overall health.” Hearing loss is one of the most common conditions affecting adults, and the most common among older adults. An estimated 30 million to 48 million Americans have hearing loss that significantly diminishes the quality of their lives — academically, professionally and medically as well as socially. One person in three older than 60 has life-diminishing hearing loss, but most older adults wait five to 15 years before they seek help, according to a 2012 report in Healthy Hearing magazine. And the longer the delay, the more one misses of life and the harder it can be to adjust to hearing aids. © 2015 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Hearing; Language
Link ID: 21449 - Posted: 09.28.2015

By Sarah C. P. Williams When the human body needs extra energy, the brain tells fat cells to release their stores. Now, for the first time, researchers have visualized the nerves that carry those messages from brain to fat tissue. The activation of these nerves in mice, they found, helps the rodents lose weight—an observation that could lead to new slimming treatments for obese people. “The methods used here are really novel and exciting,” says neuroendocrinologist Heike Muenzberg-Gruening of Louisiana State University’s Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, who was not involved in the new study. “Their work has implications for obesity research and also for studying these nerves in other tissues.” Diagrams of the chatter between the brain and fat tissues have long included two-way arrows: Fat cells produce the hormone leptin, which travels to the brain to lower appetite and boost metabolism. In turn, the brain sends signals to the fat cells when it’s time to break down their deposits of fatty molecules, such as lipids, into energy. Researchers hypothesized that there must be a set of nerve cells that hook up to traditional fat tissue to carry these messages, but they’d never been able to indisputably see or characterize them. Now they have. Thanks to two forms of microscopy, neurobiologist Ana Domingos, of the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência in Oeiras, Portugal, produced images showing bundles of nerves clearly enveloping fat cells in mice. She and her colleagues went on to show, using various stains, that the nerves were a type belonging to the sympathetic nervous system that stretches outward from the spinal cord and keeps the body’s systems in balance. © 2015 American Association for the Advancement of Science

Keyword: Obesity
Link ID: 21448 - Posted: 09.26.2015

Ellen Brait in New York Mind reading might not be as far-fetched as many people believe, says a study published by researchers at the University of Washington. Their research, published in PLOS One on Wednesday, demonstrated “that a non-invasive brain-to-brain interface (BBI) can be used to allow one human to guess what is on the mind of another human”. With only the use of brainwaves and a specifically designed computer, they examined the potential for exchanging basic information without saying a word. “We are actually still at the beginning of the field of interface technology and we are just mapping out the landscape so every single step is a step that opens up some new possibilities,” said lead author Andrea Stocco, an assistant professor of psychology and a researcher at UW’s Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences. The experiment had five pairs of men and women between the ages of 19 and 39 play a game similar to 20 questions. Each group had a “respondent”, who picked an object from lists provided, and an “inquirer”, who tried to guess the object by asking yes or no questions. They were placed in different rooms, approximately one mile apart. After a question was picked, it appeared on the respondent’s computer screen. They had two seconds to look at the question and one second to choose an answer. To do so, they looked at one of two flashing lights that were labeled yes or no. Each answer generated slightly different types of neural activity. © 2015 Guardian News and Media Limited

Keyword: Brain imaging; Vision
Link ID: 21447 - Posted: 09.26.2015

Now hear this. Anthropologists have estimated the hearing abilities of early hominins – reconstructing a human ancestor’s sensory perception. Rolf Quam from Binghamton University in New York and his colleagues studied skulls and ear bones from Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus, two species that lived between 1 million and 3 million years ago, as well as modern humans and chimpanzees. Using CT scans of the bones, they built 3D reconstructions of the ear of each species. Then they fed a series of anatomical measurements into a computer model to predict their hearing abilities. The results for humans and chimpanzees fitted well with laboratory data, suggesting the model aligned well with real performance. For each species, they then estimated the frequency range they can hear best. Modern humans and chimpanzees perform similarly below 3 kilohertz, but humans have better hearing than chimps in the 3-5 kHz range. The early hominins had a similar sensitive range to chimpanzees, but shifted slightly towards that of modern humans, so they have better hearing than chimps do for 3-4 kHz sounds. Australopithecus and Paranthropus are not believed to have been capable of language, but they almost certainly communicated vocally as other primates do, says Quam. Quam thinks this shift in hearing sensitivity would have helped them communicate in open environments, such as African savannahs, where human ancestors are thought to have evolved bipedalism. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Keyword: Evolution; Language
Link ID: 21446 - Posted: 09.26.2015

Dark puffy eyes, a feeling of deep exhaustion, and a foul mood to match – we’ve all experienced the side effects of a lack of sleep. It’s no wonder that sleep-deprivation has been used as a method of torture. Our brains seem to lose the ability to distinguish between the innocuous and emotional in such circumstances, turning us into overreacting, exhausted wrecks. We all know that a good night’s sleep is vital for a day of clear thinking, but exactly why sleep is so important remains a mystery. Talma Hendler of Tel Aviv University in Israel is particularly interested in how lack of sleep leaves us with a short emotional fuse. “We know that sleep affects our emotional behaviour, but we don’t know how,” she says. To investigate further, Hendler and her colleagues kept 18 adults awake all night. “It took a great effort,” she says. “During the night, we repeatedly measured their sleepiness, and unsurprisingly they got more and more tired.” The volunteers were put through two rounds of tests while their brains were scanned, both the day after a good night’s sleep and after being awake for 24 hours. In one test, volunteers were asked to give the direction in which yellow dots moved on a screen. In each case, the dots were laid over a potentially distracting picture that was either positively emotional (of a kitten or a couple in love, for example), negatively emotional (such as a mutilated body or a snake) or neutral (such as a cow or spoon). © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Keyword: Sleep; Emotions
Link ID: 21445 - Posted: 09.26.2015

Ian Sample Science editor Government lawyers are seeking to block compensation payments to people who developed the devastating sleep disorder, narcolepsy, as a result of a faulty swine flu vaccine. The Pandemrix vaccine made by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) was given to 6 million people in Britain and millions more across Europe during the 2009-10 swine flu pandemic, but was withdrawn when doctors noticed a rise in narcolepsy cases among those who received the jab. In June, a 12-year-old boy was awarded £120,000 by a court that ruled he had been left severely disabled by narcolepsy caused by Pandemrix. The win ended a three-year battle with the government that argued his illness was not serious enough to warrant compensation. Narcolepsy is a permanent condition that can cause people to fall asleep dozens of times a day, even when they are in mid-conversation. Some suffer from night terrors and a problem with muscular control called cataplexy that can lead them to collapse on the spot. The boy, who remains anonymous, has become disruptive at school because he is so tired and finds it almost impossible to socialise. He needs to take several naps in the school day and cannot shower unattended or take a bus alone. He may never be able to drive as an adult. © 2015 Guardian News and Media Limited

Keyword: Narcolepsy; Neuroimmunology
Link ID: 21444 - Posted: 09.26.2015

By Karen Weintraub Depression makes people more vulnerable to alcoholism and vice versa, said Dr. Shelly Greenfield, a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and director of McLean Hospital’s Alcohol and Drug Abuse Clinical and Health Services Research Program. About a third of depressed people also have a problem with alcohol, she said, adding that the depression usually comes first. Genetics makes some people more vulnerable to each — and perhaps the combination, Dr. Greenfield said, “but it’s not the whole story.” Social environment, particularly in childhood, also plays a key role. People who are the victims of physical or sexual abuse, for example, are at higher risk for both alcoholism and depression later in life, she said. Depressed people who drink will most likely see their depression worsen, because alcohol is a depressant, tamping down the nervous system, said Dr. Kathleen Brady, a distinguished university professor at the Medical University of South Carolina. Abstinence will be harder for alcoholics who are depressed, because of the hopelessness that comes with depression. Getting help promptly may make recovery from alcoholism easier, Dr. Greenfield said. Needing help to quit drinking or to resolve depression is not a sign of weakness or personal failure, she noted. In families with a history of either depression or alcoholism, it is important to be vigilant about drinking, particularly in adolescence. © 2015 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Depression; Drug Abuse
Link ID: 21443 - Posted: 09.26.2015

By Diana Kwon Multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses are known to swing with the seasons. Scientists have attributed these fluctuations to the rise and fall of vitamin D production, which is triggered by exposure to seasonal sunlight. Now a new study suggests that melatonin, a hormone that regulates your internal body clock and sleep cycles, could also play a protective role. MS is a disease of the central nervous system in which an abnormal immune response attacks the myelin sheath, or fatty protective layer, around neurons. The resulting degradation slows signaling between the brain and the rest of the body, potentially leading to a wide variety of symptoms that include weakness, vision problems and cognitive changes. The condition may affect as many as 2.3 million people worldwide. The cause of the disease remains unknown, although researchers have started to identify genetic risks and environmental factors, including smoking, viral infections and vitamin D levels in the bloodstream. The latest environmental influence, observed by Mauricio Farez, a neuroscientist at the Raúl Carrea Institute for Neurological Research, and colleagues could involve peak melatonin levels in the body, which occur during the darker months. The researchers assessed a group of 139 multiple sclerosis patients in Buenos Aires and found a 32 percent reduction in the number of relapses in the fall and winter, when people living in the Southern Hemisphere produce more of the hormone, compared with summer and spring. The results are published on the September 10 Cell. © 2015 Scientific American

Keyword: Multiple Sclerosis; Biological Rhythms
Link ID: 21442 - Posted: 09.24.2015

Linda Geddes Jack struggled in regular school. Diagnosed with dyslexia and the mathematical equivalent, dyscalculia, as well as the movement disorder dyspraxia, Jack (not his real name) often misbehaved and played the class clown. So the boy’s parents were relieved when he was offered a place at Fairley House in London, which specializes in helping children with learning difficulties. Fairley is also possibly the first school in the world to have offered pupils the chance to undergo electrical brain stimulation. The stimulation was done as part of an experiment in which twelve eight- to ten-year-olds, including Jack, wore an electrode-equipped cap while they played a video game. Neuroscientist Roi Cohen Kadosh of the University of Oxford, UK, who led the pilot study in 2013, is one of a handful of researchers across the world who are investigating whether small, specific areas of a child’s brain can be safely stimulated to overcome learning difficulties. “It would be great to be able to understand how to deliver effective doses of brain stimulation to kids’ brains, so that we can get ahead of developmental conditions before they really start to hold children back in their learning,” says psychologist Nick Davis of Swansea University, UK. The idea of using magnets or electric currents to treat psychiatric or learning disorders — or just to enhance cognition — has generated a flurry of excitement over the past ten years. The technique is thought to work by activating neural circuits or by making it easier for neurons to fire. The research is still in its infancy, but at least 10,000 adults have undergone such stimulation, and it seems to be safe — at least in the short term. One version of the technology, called transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat migraine and depression in adults. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group,

Keyword: Dyslexia; Attention
Link ID: 21441 - Posted: 09.24.2015