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In 2003, ScienCentral interviewed researcher Michael Kaplitt, assistant professor of neurological surgery at New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center, and co-founder of Neurologix, Inc. Kaplitt and his team had gotten approval for a Phase 1 study to determine the safety of gene therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease and had performed the world's first gene therapy surgery on a patient with the disease. The findings of the completed study are published in the June 23 issue of the British medical journal The Lancet. The video to the right includes excerpts from our 2003 interview with Kaplitt. For more information on the newly published study, read on. The study reported positive results from the first ever gene therapy trial for Parkinson's disease. The clinical trial studied 12 patients, 11 men and one woman, ranging in age from 50 to 67, who had advanced Parkinson's disease. It was a "Phase 1" study, meaning it was designed primarily to test and prove that the therapy is safe. Kaplitt and his team used a harmless virus called an adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a sort of cargo ship for the corrective gene they wanted to deliver to the patient's brains. The virus carrying the gene called "GAD" (glutamic acid decarboxylase) was injected into a part of the brain called the subthalamic nucleus (STN), which usually has abnormally high activity in Parkinson's patients. This heightened activity leads to the loss of muscle control that is a hallmark of Parkinson's. © ScienCentral, 2000-2007

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 10419 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By CLAUDIA DREIFUS CAMBRIDGE, Mass. — Short of a Nobel Prize, there are few scientific honors that the biologist Susan L. Lindquist has not won. In The Lab Susan Lindquist and her team tested 5,000 genes to find a few that express a protein capable of saving a yeast cell from the Parkinson’s gene. Among other accolades, she is a Howard Hughes Medical Investigator, a member of the National Academies of Science and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the 2006 recipient of the Sigma Xi William Procter Prize for Scientific Achievement. It has all come her way because of her imaginative research into how proteins function. Dr. Lindquist, the former director of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, studies how molecular proteins change shape in cell division. The process, called protein folding, can— when it goes wrong — lead to diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Last June, Dr. Lindquist and a group of colleagues published a paper in the journal Science reporting new clues about how Parkinson’s develops and how it might be treated. Copyright 2007 The New York Times Company

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 10210 - Posted: 06.24.2010

In humans, a dearth of the neurotransmitter dopamine has long been known to play a role in Parkinson's disease. It is also known that mutations in a protein called parkin cause a form of Parkinson's that is inherited. Now, UCLA scientists, reporting in the Jan. 31 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience, have put the two together. Using a new model of Parkinson's disease they developed in the simple Drosophila (fruit fly), the researchers show for the first time that a mutated form of the human parkin gene inserted into Drosophila specifically results in the death of dopaminergic cells, ultimately resulting in Parkinson's-like motor dysfunction in the fly. Thus, the interaction of mutant parkin with dopamine may be key to understanding the cause of familial Parkinson's disease — Parkinson's that runs in families. Conventional wisdom has held that parkin is recessive, meaning that two copies of the mutated gene were required in order to see the clinical signs of Parkinson's disease. But the researchers, led by George Jackson, M.D., Ph.D., UCLA associate professor of neurology and senior scientist at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA, wanted to see if they could get the protein to act in a dominant fashion, so they put only one copy of the mutation into their fly model. The result was the death of the neurons that use dopamine, the neurotransmitter long implicated in Parkinson's disease. "We put the mutant parkin in all different kinds of tissues and in different kinds of neurons, and it was toxic only to the ones that used dopamine," Jackson said. "No one's shown this degree of specificity for dopaminergic neurons."

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 9916 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Roxanne Khamsi, Atlanta Initial results from the first human clinical trial of gene therapy treatment for Parkinson’s disease suggest the approach can significantly reduce symptoms of the disease. After a year, the 12 patients in the trial showed an average 25% improvement in motor control. The researchers say the new treatment shows no signs of reducing immunity – gene therapy for other illnesses has caused fatal immune-system complications. There is currently no cure for Parkinson’s disease, a fatal degenerative brain condition that causes tremors, speech difficulties and progressive loss of mobility, among many other symptoms. Sufferers can take medications such as levodopa, which helps by elevating levels of the chemical messenger dopamine in the brain. But people respond less to the drug over time and can experience side effects such as jerky movements. Researchers hoping to develop a cure for Parkinson’s have now turned to gene therapy. They developed the treatment by engineering a harmless virus to carry genes that encode a protein called glutamic acid decarboxylase, or GAD. The protein helps make a key nerve signalling chemical called GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid), which inhibits a brain region known as the subthalamic nucleus. This is important because the subthalamic nucleus is typically overactive in Parkinson’s disease due to a loss of dopamine-producing cells elsewhere in the brain. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 9490 - Posted: 06.24.2010

New research suggests that nicotine treatment protects against the same type of brain damage that occurs in Parkinson’s disease. The research was conducted in laboratory animals treated with MPTP, an agent that produces a gradual loss of brain function characteristic of Parkinson’s. Experimental animals receiving chronic administration of nicotine over a period of six months had 25 percent less damage from the MPTP treatment than those not receiving nicotine. This protective effect may explain the lower incidence of Parkinson’s disease among smokers. The results also suggest that nicotine may be useful as a potential therapy in the treatment of early-stage Parkinson’s patients. The five-year study was conducted by researchers at The Parkinson’s Institute, an independent, non-profit research institute located in Sunnyvale, California. The study results are published in an on-line early release in the Journal of Neurochemistry (doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.04078.x) Parkinson’s disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease caused by the death of small clusters of cells in the midbrain. The gradual loss of these cells results in reduction of a critical transmitter called dopamine, the chemical messenger responsible for normal movement. “While we would never recommend that people smoke, these results suggest that nicotine promotes the survival of dopamine-producing cells in animals with no overt Parkinson’s symptoms,” said David A. Schwartz, M.D., director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the federal agency that provided funding for the study.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 9218 - Posted: 06.24.2010

A National Institutes of Health-sponsored clinical trial with 200 Parkinson's disease patients has shown that creatine and minocycline may warrant further consideration for study in a large trial, according to Karl Kieburtz, M.D., M.P.H., University of Rochester, who spoke today at the World Parkinson Congress on behalf of the trial investigators. Study investigators caution that while the news is encouraging, the results do not demonstrate that these agents are effective in Parkinson's disease. Before these interventions can be recommended as a treatment they must be tested in a larger trial with hundreds of patients. Study findings are available online and will be published in the March 14 issue of Neurology.* Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disorder of the brain in which patients may develop progressive tremor, slowness of movements, and stiffness of muscles. It affects approximately 1 percent of Americans over the age of 65. Although certain drugs, such as levodopa, can reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's, no treatment has been shown to slow the progressive deterioration in function. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has organized a nationwide multi-center effort called NET-PD (Neuroprotection Exploratory Trials in Parkinson's Disease), a randomized, double-blind futility trial, to study compounds that may slow the clinical decline of Parkinson's disease. As the initial step in these efforts, creatine and the antibiotic minocycline were identified as agents worthy of preliminary study. Patients very early in the disease course who did not yet need medications typically used to treat their Parkinson's symptoms were included in the study.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 8575 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Disease nosed its way into David Eger's life gradually. At first, he couldn't raise his elbow as high as usual. He brushed it off as a possible gym injury. But soon, his left fist would clench and go rigid. "My family began to notice it and observe it, so I decided I'd better go and have somebody look at it," says Eger, a 60-year old clinical psychologist. After testing, Eger's was diagnosed with Parksinson's disease, a brain disorder that whittles away the brain's ability to make a key chemical called dopamine that controls body movement. Now, researchers working on a study in mice have found that a popular dance club drug — the amphetamine, ecstasy — might help patients like Eger combat the physical decline that accompanies Parkinson's. "We went and tested as many as 70 drugs total, belonging to 20 different pharmacological groups," explains Raul Gainetdinov, a neuroscientist who was part of the Duke University team that studied the effects of amphetamines in lab mice that have Parkinson's-like symptoms. "To our surprise, not many things really worked. When we tried with ecstasy it was the first drug that we discovered working... It was amazingly effective," he says. "[The mice] went from a situation where they were completely frozen to ability to move quite a significant distance, and pretty much normally." © ScienCentral, 2000-2005

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity; Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System; Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 8197 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Symptoms in mice that mimic Parkinson’s disease are reversed by treatment with amphetamines, including Ecstasy, according to a new study. The drugs seem to work through a pathway not involving the chemical dopamine, which surprised the researchers since dopamine deficiency is the cause of Parkinson’s. These results may lead to the discovery of “other systems that can replace or substitute for the very important action of dopamine”, says study author Marc Caron of Duke University, US. Dopamine transmission in a region of the brain called the striatum is essential for normal movement. Parkinson’s results when dopamine-producing neurons in this region die. The best current treatment for the condition is a chemical called L-Dopa – a natural precursor to dopamine. L-Dopa works well for patients in the early stages of the disease, but its effectiveness diminishes with time, and it can actually cause involuntary movements. To screen for other types of drugs, Russian scientists Tatyana Sotnikova and Raul Gainetdinov, working with the team at Duke University, studied mice altered to possess no brain dopamine. They show classic symptoms of Parkinson’s disease including muscle rigidity, problems initiating movement, and resting body tremor. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity; Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System; Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 7722 - Posted: 06.24.2010

The human brain is a complicated organ and the last to be deciphered by medicine. Although we are continually gaining new understanding about the intricacies of how the brain works ? especially what happens in the brain when things stop working and how to treat those issues ? but science still has a long way to go. The tremors that Steve Tarence, from Milford, Connecticut, suffered in his right arm because of Parkinson's Disease became so severe there was little he could still do by himself. "It's what they call flapping, where? the hand just takes off on you," he explains. "I couldn't go out, I couldn't turn around? life was changed completely because of it. It was really bad." He says deep brain stimulation (DBS) gave him back much of the life Parkinson's had taken away. "I am not afraid to go out, I'm not afraid to eat soup, I'm not afraid to do so many things? it's really, really wonderful," says Tarence. It was so successful in calming the tremors in his right arm that he plans to have it done for the tremors that have now begun on his left side. In DBS, surgeons implant electrodes ? with millimeter precision ? into the brain to stimulate the areas causing the tremors. But how pulses of electrical stimulation relieve the uncontrolled movement, why it doesn't help some patients, and what the long-term consequences of it might be, are not fully understood. © ScienCentral, 2000-2005.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 7532 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Pope John Paul II was one of the most vigorous, well-traveled popes in history. But in his last years, Parkinson's disease made him frail and weak. People with Parkinson's often experience muscle rigidity, trembling, difficulty walking, and problems with balance and coordination. There is no cure for this progressive neurological disorder. Parkinson's disease is caused by a loss of the brain cells called neurons that produce a chemical called dopamine. Without enough of this important neurotransmitter, parts of the brain become overactive and sufferers lose control of their muscle activity. "We really don’t understand what dopamine does in the normal situation," says Mark West, a psychology professor at Rutgers University. "We know what happens when dopamine's been lost—movement becomes very difficult. In some way then, dopamine helps the brain’s motor system function smoothly. "The typical drug given is L-Dopa, which the brain converts into dopamine, and thus, some of the dopamine that's been lost is replaced," says West. The drug, developed more than 30 years ago, remains the most effective treatment. But doctors admit L-Dopa is only a bandaid for the symptoms and for some patients, it works only temporarily. "It was pretty clear over time," explains Michael Kaplitt, a professor of neurological surgery at New York Presbyterian-Weill-Cornell Medical Center. "Parkinson’s disease patients will suffer with this disorder for a long period of time—for 15, 20, 30 years or more. And after they've taken these drugs for a long period of time, a lot of things can happen. For some patients, they can become increasingly resistant to the medication after years of taking it, so they will require increasing doses of the medication, or they'll require more numerous doses throughout the day. But even with that they continue to worsen." (C) ScienCentral, 2000-2005.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 7135 - Posted: 06.24.2010

The following statement is being released by the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation, located at 710 West 168th Street, New York City. It follows the announcement, earlier today, of a decision by Amgen Incorporated, manufacturer of GDNF, an experimental neural growth factor, to forgo the offer of reinstatement of GDNF to patients who were involved in recent clinical trials of the treatment. The authors of the PDF statement are Stanley Fahn, M.D., the Foundation’s Scientific Director, and Robin Anthony Elliott, its Executive Director. "The Amgen announcement, which followed a resolution by the PDF Board of Directors urging the company to permit patients who participated in the company’s clinical trials the option of continued access to GDNF, is deeply disappointing to PDF, to the Parkinson’s community, and to the participating patients," the statement reads. "However well-intentioned the company may have been in wrestling with this issue, we believe it has reached the wrong decision – whether judged in terms of science, or the desires of the people who participated in the clinical trials, or the issues of safety." "In terms of the science, we would argue that the reinstatement of GDNF, if accompanied by the continuing collection of efficacy and safety data, would enable scientists and regulatory authorities to monitor the long-term aspects of safety and efficacy of the treatment. Furthermore, the observation of increased fluorodopa uptake in PET scans needs to be carefully followed over time to determine if this will eventually translate into clinical improvement. Giving up this opportunity to learn is, in our view, a mistake." © 2005 The Parkinson’s Disease Foundation

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 6872 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Scientists who developed the first yeast model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been able to describe the mechanisms of an important gene’s role in the disease. Tiago Fleming Outeiro, Ph.D., and Susan Lindquist, Ph.D., of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts, studied the gene’s actions under normal conditions and under abnormal conditions to learn how and when the gene’s product, alpha-synuclein, becomes harmful to surrounding cells. The scientists created a yeast model that expresses the alpha-synuclein gene, which has been implicated in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Yeast models are often used in the study of genetic diseases because they offer researchers a simple system that allows them to clarify how genes work. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, part of the National Institutes of Health, funded the study, which appears in the December 5, 2003, issue of Science. The alpha-synuclein protein, which is found broadly in the brain, has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders. Sometimes a mutation or a misfolding of the protein causes the problems; other times there are too many copies of the normal gene. A study earlier this year reported that patients with a rare familial form of PD had too many normal copies of the alpha-synuclein gene, which resulted in a buildup of protein inside brain cells, causing the symptoms of PD.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 4653 - Posted: 06.24.2010

St. Paul, MN – Excessive gambling could be an unfortunate yet rare side effect in Parkinson’s patients who take certain dopamine agonists, according to a study in the August 12 issue of Neurology, the scientific journal of the American Academy of Neurology. Researchers at Muhammad Ali Parkinson Research Center in Phoenix, Ariz., examined the data of 1,884 Parkinson’s patients who were seen during a one-year period. Nine patients – seven men and two women – were identified with pathological gambling. “The risk of gambling problems in a Parkinson’s patient is very small,” said study author Mark Stacy, MD, who is now the medical director of the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C. “However, it may be appropriate for doctors to inform patients of this potential risk, particularly in their patients taking relatively high dosages of a dopamine agonist, and with a documented history of depression or anxiety disorder.”

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity; Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System; Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 4151 - Posted: 06.24.2010

ST. PAUL, MN -- Women who consume little or no caffeine, but who take hormone replacement therapy, may reduce their risk of developing Parkinson’s disease, according to a study published in the March 11 issue of Neurology, the scientific journal of the American Academy of Neurology. However, HRT may increase disease risk in women who drink the equivalent of more than five cups of coffee per day. Two large studies have previously shown that increased caffeine intake is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson’s disease in men. Studies in women, which to date have not factored in use of hormone replacement therapy, have been contradictory and inconclusive. Parkinson’s disease is less common in women, and some evidence suggests that estrogen may help protect the neurons that degenerate in this disease. Estrogen is the principal hormone in HRT, a common therapy in post-menopausal women.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity; Chapter 5: Hormones and the Brain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System; Chapter 8: Hormones and Sex
Link ID: 3587 - Posted: 06.24.2010

ST. PAUL, MN – Previous research has implicated oxidative damage (cell degradation) in the development of Parkinson’s disease. Because vitamins E, C and carotenoids are antioxidants, researchers recently studied the associations between their intake and risk of Parkinson’s disease. Their conclusions point not to supplements, but to dietary intake of vitamin E (from the foods we eat) as having a protective factor in the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. The study is reported in the October 22 issue of Neurology, the scientific journal of the American Academy of Neurology. Using repeated and validated dietary assessments of two large study cohorts, researchers from Harvard School of Public Health, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School examined the associations between dietary intakes of vitamin E, C, and carotenoids, vitamin supplements, and risk of Parkinson’s disease. After exclusions, 76,890 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and 47,331 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) were included in the study analyses.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 2906 - Posted: 06.24.2010

In the first study of its type, researchers at Emory University and nine other centers nationwide have determined that a naturally occurring compound called coenzyme Q10 can slow progressive deterioration associated with the early stages of Parkinson's disease up to 44 percent. This is the first time a study has shown that any nutrient or vitamin might play a role in slowing the progression of PD. The greatest benefits were seen in motor skills and activities of daily living, such as walking, dressing, feeding and bathing. The results of this study will be published in the Oct. 15 issue of the American Medical Association's Archives of Neurology and will be discussed at the annual meeting of the American Neurological Association in New York City, also on Oct. 15. "The study was designed to test the hypothesis that high doses of coenzyme Q10 would slow the progression of Parkinson's, as measured by movement difficulty or disability," says Ray Watts, M.D., professor of neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, and lead investigator of the Emory study. "We are very encouraged with the results of this small trial, which consisted of 80 Parkinson's patients nationwide. However, a larger, multi-centered, controlled trial is still needed before this treatment can be recommended to patients with a high degree of certainty."

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 2801 - Posted: 06.24.2010

UCLA scientists have developed a fast new way to image how thousands of genes misfire proteins in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. The approach may provide a research blueprint for pinpointing the abnormal brain regions linked to autism and schizophrenia. The new findings are reported in the June edition of Genome Research. Last year, UCLA pharmacologist Desmond Smith developed a new method to rapidly track how genes express proteins in the human brain. Called “voxelation,” the approach involves cutting the brain into cubes, then using DNA chip technology and math to reconstruct gene expression patterns in three-dimensional images. This time, Smith used voxelation to compare gene expression in the brains of mice. Half of the mice received drugs to induce Parkinson’s disease. The UCLA team analyzed the brain cubes with DNA chips to track the expression of 9,000 genes simultaneously. They then combined the 9,000 resulting images to visualize how the genes construct the brain.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 2165 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Researchers at Emory University and a group of international collaborators, using positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging, have determined that a relatively new drug slows the loss of dopamine function in early stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD) compared with an older, more commonly used drug. Investigators say the drug ropinirole (brand name ReQuip ) slows the loss of dopamine, a neurotransmitter produced by neurons in the brain that is found in steadily decreasing amounts as the disease progresses, in a more effective manner than levodopa (brand name Sinemet ). In this trial, the progression of the loss of dopamine function was slowed by over 30 percent in participants taking ropinirole as compared with participants in a comparable stage of the disease taking levodopa.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 1893 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By Julia Sommerfeld MSNBC DENVER, — Experimental transplants of cells from aborted fetuses and donated eyes are showing promise for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, according to two studies out Wednesday. Both types of cells were shown to survive in patients’ brains and improve some of the hallmark symptoms of the dreaded disease. PARKINSON’S, which affects an estimated 1 million people in the United States, is caused when the brain cells that produce a chemical known as dopamine die off. Colorado researchers reported follow-up results on a controversial experiment in which holes were drilled in the skull and dopamine cells from aborted fetuses were implanted in the brains of advanced Parkinson’s patients. Other doctors described the initial results of transplants of dopamine cells from the retinas of donated eyes. Both findings were presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Neurology in Denver. “It takes the loss of 80 percent to 90 percent of dopamine-producing neurons to lead to the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease,” said Dr. Robin Brey, a professor of medicine, division of neurology at University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio. “So you need fairly small amount of dopamine-producing neurons to remain normal. That tells us that even if a small number of transplanted cells were to take and produce dopamine, that could do a lot. So this is very promising.” MSNBC Terms, Conditions and Privacy © 2002

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity; Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System; Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 1902 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By Stacey Singer Health Writer It would cost $100,000 for the operation that could stop her mother’s tremors. No one in the family had that kind of money, and there was no health insurance. Grace Donofrio knew all this as she scanned the Internet, reading about the latest surgical treatment for tremors caused by Parkinson’s disease. It was early in 2001, and Donofrio, full of hope, called a family meeting. She told her brother and sister that no matter what it cost, no matter what they had to sell or borrow, they must find a way to give their mother the operation. Somberly, they all agreed. In her healthy days, Neponezia Simoes crafted beautiful dresses, an elegant confection of organdy and flowers for Donofrio’s wedding, a variation of Chanel or St. Lauren for a regular customer. Copyright © 2001, South Florida Sun-Sentinel

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 1217 - Posted: 06.24.2010