Links for Keyword: Regeneration

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— Researchers have devised a genetic technique to distinguish the neurons in the spinal cord that control the sequential stepping of the left and right limbs. Their findings have literally taken them a step closer to understanding the neural circuitry that coordinates walking movements - which has been one of the main obstacles in developing new treatments for paralysis. According to the researchers, using genetic techniques to identify specific spinal neural networks could greatly enhance our knowledge of the intricate neural circuitry involved in spinal motor control. Moreover, a better understanding of this area is absolutely crucial in developing strategies to restore motor function caused by paralysis due to spinal injury or disease. The approach that the researchers used to identify these neurons will likely find broader application and be useful in defining the “local” circuitry that governs other rhythmic processes such as breathing, as well as reflex behaviors that do not involve the brain. ©2004 Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity; Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System; Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 5502 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By CLAUDIA DREIFUS The first thought that Dr. Marie T. Filbin wants to convey is that it is possible to teach at a municipal college and have a great research career. "People are always putting down the City University because it is not Harvard or Rockefeller," said Dr. Filbin, 48, a professor of biological sciences at Hunter College of the City University of New York. "But Hunter is a great place for a researcher. My students are wonderful." A scientist who praises an employer is rare enough. But then Marie Filbin is an unusual scientist. Her specialty is practical: she studies why injured nerve cells do not regenerate themselves — a factor crucial to understanding the mysteries of paralysis. When not at her bench, she delivers lectures — really progress reports on her research — at nursing homes. And when she speaks to paralysis patients, she says, "They put me on the spot." Copyright 2004 The New York Times Company

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity; Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System; Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 5139 - Posted: 06.24.2010

A new study strongly suggests that some cells from bone marrow can enter the human brain and generate new neurons and other types of brain cells. If researchers can find a way to control these cells and direct them to damaged areas of the brain, this finding may lead to new treatments for stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other neurological disorders. "This study shows that some kind of cell in bone marrow, most likely a stem cell, has the capacity to enter the brain and form neurons," says Èva Mezey, M.D., Ph.D., from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), who led the study. Earlier work by Dr. Mezey and others has shown that bone marrow cells can enter the mouse brain and produce new neurons. However, the new study is the first to show that this phenomenon can occur in the human brain. The study was supported in part by the NINDS and appears in the January 20, 2003, online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences1 . The NINDS is a component of the National Institutes of Health, which is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In the study, Dr. Mezey and colleagues examined brain tissue taken at autopsy from four female patients — two adults and two children — who had received bone marrow transplants from male donors. The bone marrow transplants had been performed to treat leukemia and other non-neurological diseases, and the patients survived from 1 to 9 months after their transplants.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 3326 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By ANDREW POLLACK IRVINE, Calif. — In a closetlike room at the "Leg Lab" here, salamanders stare blankly out of clear plastic drinking cups. The lab is so named because many of the animals have had, or will have, a leg cut off. But the salamanders recover, with perfect new limbs growing back in weeks. Salamanders are the superstars of regeneration. They can grow back not only limbs but also tails, parts of their hearts and the retinas and lenses in their eyes. Humans cannot do any of that. So scientists here hope that the salamander's tricks may one day be applied to people. "I really do believe it's just a matter of time before you're going to regenerate an arm or at least a finger," said Dr. David M. Gardiner, a biologist who runs the laboratory at the University of California at Irvine with Dr. Susan V. Bryant, the dean of biological sciences and his wife. "I'd like to see that in my lifetime." Copyright 2002 The New York Times Company

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 2698 - Posted: 06.24.2010

New Haven, Conn. — Yale researchers have developed a synthetic peptide that promotes new nerve fiber growth in the damaged spinal cords of laboratory rats and allows them to walk better, according to a study published Thursday in the journal Nature. The finding could lead to the reversal of functional deficits resulting from brain and spinal cord injuries and caused by trauma and stroke, or brought about by degenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. The lead author of the study, Stephen Strittmatter, M.D., associate professor of neurology and neurobiology at Yale School of Medicine, said the study confirms which molecules block axon regeneration in the spinal cord and shows that a peptide can promote new growth. Axons are the telephone lines of the nervous system and carry a nerve impulse to a target cell. Copyright © 1995-2002 ScienceDaily Magazine

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 2177 - Posted: 06.24.2010

ORLANDO, Fla., — Researchers at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine have identified a set of compounds that appear to overcome an important barrier to regenerating damaged nerves. Their findings could lead to new treatments for spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis and other neurological conditions. Targeting a newly discovered mechanism that inhibits the growth of damaged nerves, the researchers found that these compounds caused dissected rat nerves to regenerate under controlled laboratory conditions. Findings were described today at the 223rd national meeting of the American Chemical Society, the world’s largest scientific society. The results add to a growing body of evidence that repairing spinal cord injury — once thought impossible — may one day occur, says Ronald L. Schnaar, Ph.D., a professor in the Department of Pharmacology at the university, located in Baltimore, Md., and lead investigator in the study.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 3: Neurophysiology: The Generation, Transmission, and Integration of Neural Signals
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 3: Neurophysiology: The Generation, Transmission, and Integration of Neural Signals
Link ID: 1830 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By Susan Gaidos It could have been a scene from a sequel to Jurassic Park: Peering down at the tiny worms wriggling under the lens of her microscope, biologist Alexandra Bely witnessed a performance that hadn’t been played in nature in millions of years. The beastie was sprouting a second head. Actually, two-headed worms are common in Bely’s lab at the University of Maryland in College Park. But this specimen belongs to a species that had long ago lost the unusual regenerative ability. That species, Paranais litoralis, is part of an ancient family of worms called naidids that settle in the soft sediments alongside streams and ponds. Generally, if a sudden rush of water or a hungry predator causes a naidid to lose its head, it will simply grow another one. But some species that Bely and colleagues have studied, including Pa. litoralis, seem to have lost this power. So it surprised Bely to see that, with the right timing, the creature could regain its head-popping potential. “That’s very exciting, because it indicates that the ability to regenerate is still there, in a dormant state,” Bely says, “though it probably hasn’t been expressed or seen in millions of years.” Bely’s finding and other recent results have encouraged researchers who are trying to figure out why some animals can reconstruct their body parts while others can’t. Most species have the ability to regenerate some body parts, yet this talent is highly variable. © Society for Science & the Public 2000 - 2010

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry; Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain; Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 13720 - Posted: 06.24.2010

For the first time, researchers have enticed transplants of embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons in the spinal cord to connect with muscles and partially restore function in paralyzed animals. The study suggests that similar techniques may be useful for treating such disorders as spinal cord injury, transverse myelitis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and spinal muscular atrophy. The study was funded in part by the NIH’s National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). The researchers, led by Douglas Kerr, M.D., Ph.D., of The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, used a combination of transplanted motor neurons, chemicals capable of overcoming signals that inhibit axon growth, and a nerve growth factor to attract axons to muscles. The report is published in the July 2006 issue of Annals of Neurology.* "This work is a remarkable advance that can help us understand how stem cells might be used to treat injuries and disease and begin to fulfill their great promise. The successful demonstration of functional restoration is proof of the principle and an important step forward. We must remember, however, that we still have a great distance to go," says Elias A. Zerhouni, Director of the National Institutes of Health.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry; Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain; Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 9043 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Paralysed dogs given an unusual treatment for spinal cord injury have shown some success in being able to walk again, a new study reveals. Dogs rendered paraplegic by severe spinal cord injuries regained significant neurological function after treatment with a polymer called polyethylene glycol, or PEG, say researchers at Purdue University in Indiana, US. Dogs admitted to two veterinary hospitals with paraplegia - caused by naturally occurring mishaps leading to “explosive” ruptures of spinal discs - were initially treated with intravenous injections of PEG. This was followed by standard treatments, such as surgery to relieve pressure on the spinal cord and remove stray bone fragments, and steroids to reduce inflammation. The team, led by Richard Borgens of Purdue’s Center for Paralysis Research, reports that the PEG-treated animals showed marked improvement compared to “historical controls” - paraplegic dogs whose progress had been documented at the hospitals following standard treatments in the 1990s. Within 48 hours, the PEG-treated dogs scored far better than the historical controls on neurological and behavioural tests designed to measure early functional recovery. And by six weeks after treatment 68% of the PEG-treated dogs were able to walk, compared with only 24% of the historical controls. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 6526 - Posted: 06.24.2010

The treatment of neuropsychological deficits that follow stroke or head injury comes under scrutiny at an international conference-aimed of determining which treatments work, how well they work and for whom. The 600 delegates at the Effectiveness of Rehabilitation for Cognitive Deficits conference, organised by Cardiff University’s School of Psychology are drawn from all sectors of health care management and include medical doctors, clinical psychologists, research neuropsychologists, therapists, insurers, lawyers, patients and their families. “The volume of interest that the conference has generated reflects the originality and significance of the theme,” said conference organiser, Professor Peter Halligan. “As far as we are aware, there has never been a formal international meeting dedicated to considering the efficacy of existing treatments and employing an evidence based approach for cognitive disorders in patients following brain damage”. Rehabilitation for brain injury is expensive and time consuming.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 2: Functional Neuroanatomy: The Nervous System and Behavior; Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 2: Cells and Structures: The Anatomy of the Nervous System; Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 2664 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Washington, DC -- Neuroscientists had long believed that the only way to repair a spinal cord injury was to grow new neural connections, but researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center have found that, especially in young rats, powerful cells near the injury site also work overtime to restrict nerve damage and restore movement and sensation. The same process does not work as efficiently in adult rats and thus recovery time is much longer, the researchers also discovered. But they say that now that they know such a mechanism exists, it may be possible one day to “switch” these cells on therapeutically ? and possibly help humans function better following serious spinal cord injuries. “No one knew cells in the spinal cord acted to protect nerves in this way, so it gives us some hope that in the future we could stimulate this process in the clinic to enhance recovery and ensure the best outcome possible for patients,” said the senior author, Jean R. Wrathall, Ph.D., professor in the Department of Neuroscience. “This is an animal study, however, and there is much work to do to understand more about this process and how it might be altered,” Wrathall said. The study, whose first author is graduate student Philberta Y. Leung, is published in the November 2006 issue of the journal Experimental Neurology.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 9602 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Transplantation of human brain cells corrected involuntary muscle spasms in rats with ischemic spinal cord injury, according to research published online October 12 and in print October 19, 2004 in the European Journal of Neurosciences by investigators at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine. Ischemic spinal cord injury, caused by reduced blood flow to the spinal cord, occurs in 20 to 40 percent of the several hundred patients each year in the U.S. who undergo surgery to repair an aneurysm, or sac-like widening of the aorta, the main artery that leaves the heart. A subpopulation of patients with ischemic spinal cord injury develop a prominent muscle spasticity, or jerkiness of the legs and lower body, due to the irreversible loss of specialized spinal cord cells that control local motor function. During a 12-week period in which the animals were followed, the UCSD team found that rats receiving the brain, or neuronal cell transplants displayed a progressive recovery of motor function and a decrease in spasticity in the lower extremities over a period of several weeks following the injections. Fifty percent of the animals experienced a significant improvement in motor function. In contrast, the “control” rats that did not receive transplants exhibited no improvement in motor function or spasticity. A post-mortem study of the animals showed a robust growth of neurons and an increase in neurotransmitters in the spinal cords of rats that received the transplanted neuronal cells.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 6274 - Posted: 06.24.2010

by MacGregor Campbell "THE leg wasn't bouncing all over the table, but there were substantial twitches," says Matthew Schiefer, a neural engineer at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. Schiefer is describing an experiment in which pulses of electricity are used to control the muscles of an unconscious patient, as if they were a marionette. It represents the beginnings of a new generation of devices that he hopes will allow people with paralysed legs to regain control of their muscles and so be able to stand, or even walk again. His is one of a raft of gadgets being developed that plug into the network of nerves that normally relay commands from the spinal cord to the muscles, but fall silent when a spinal injury breaks the chain. New ways to connect wires to nerves (see diagram) allow artificial messages to be injected to selectively control muscles just as if the signal had originated in the brain. Limbs that might otherwise never again be controlled by their owners can be brought back to life. The potential of this approach was demonstrated in 2006 when a different Case Western team enabled someone who was paralysed from the waist down to watch their usually motionless knees straighten at the push of a button. With a little support they even stood for 2 minutes while signals injected into nerves in their thighs kept their knees straight. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 13932 - Posted: 06.24.2010

by James Mitchell Crow YOU were born with all the brain cells you'll ever have, so the saying goes. So much for sayings. In the 1990s, decades of dogma were overturned by the discovery that mammals, including people, make new neurons throughout their lives. In humans, such "neurogenesis" has been seen in two places: neurons formed in the olfactory bulb seem to be involved in learning new smells, while those born in the hippocampus are involved in learning and memory. The discovery that new neurons can integrate into the adult brain raises intriguing possibilities. Could the process be harnessed to treat diseases of the brain, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's? The trick will be in replacing diseased cells with just the right kind of neuron, says Jeff Macklis, who studies neurogenesis at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. By some estimates, the nervous system is made up of 10,000 different kinds of neuron. This complexity means you can't just hijack any old cell produced by natural neurogenesis. However, there may be other ways of growing new neurons to order. Olle Lindvall at Lund University in Sweden has shown what might be possible. He transplanted dopamine-producing neurons taken from aborted fetuses into the brains of people with Parkinson's, and showed the new neurons can improve brain function, although the treatment didn't work for everyone. Lindvall is now looking for ways to make these specialised neurons from embryonic stem cells or stem cells made by reprogramming adult skin cells. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry; Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain; Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 13923 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Ian Sample, science correspondent People who are left wheelchair-bound by spinal cord injuries could regain some of their mobility through a rehabilitation programme being developed by scientists. Guardian neuroscience stories have found that a combination of drugs, muscle stimulation and treadmill exercises helps paralysed rats to recover the ability to walk normally. The animal tests pave the way for clinical trials in humans, which scientists hope to begin in the US and Switzerland within five years. The treatment, developed by neurologists at the University of Zurich and the University of California in Los Angeles, taps into neural circuits in the spinal cord that control the muscles used for walking. In able-bodied people, these "walking circuits" spring into action when they receive a signal from the brain, but if the spinal cord is damaged, the message from the brain never arrives. When contact with the brain is lost, the circuits shut down. "We've known for more than a century that there are networks of neurons in the spinal cord that generate the rhythmic activity needed for walking," said Grégoire Courtine at the Experimental Neurorehabilitation laboratory in Zurich. "Our study suggests that the brain mostly sends a go or no-go signal." A team led by Courtine used drugs known as serotonin agonists to awaken the walking circuits in paralysed rats whose spines had been severed. The researchers then used tiny electrodes to stimulate the animals' spinal circuitry, according to a report in the journal Nature Neuroscience. © Guardian News and Media Limited 2009

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 13284 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By Claire Thomas How does the brain cope when, several years after having both hands amputated, a person suddenly receives two new hands? Surprisingly well, it seems. In a study out today, researchers provide the most detailed picture yet of how the brain reorganizes itself to accommodate foreign appendages. And in a result that they are still trying to explain, the scientists found that in two such double-hand transplants, the left hand reconnected with the brain more quickly than did the right. A group of French and Australian doctors performed the world's first hand transplant in 1998, and the same team repeated the feat on both hands 2 years later. Studies carried out since then indicate that the brain reorganizes itself in response to these new appendages. However, the work looked only at coarse hand movements that mainly used nontransplanted muscles. Wanting to learn more about how the brain copes with donor hands, cognitive neuroscientist Angela Sirigu of the French National Research Agency in Lyon and colleagues looked at two right-handed men, one age 20 and the other 42, who recently had left and right hand transplants to replace hands amputated following work injuries 3 to 4 years ago. After extensive training, both men are now able to perform a range of complex tasks with the foreign appendages, from dialing a phone number to using tools such as screwdrivers and pliers to rewire an electrical outlet. The researchers found that both men's motor cortexes--the region of the brain responsible for carrying out muscle movement--had reorganized themselves in response to the new hands. After a person loses a hand, the region of the motor cortex that controls hand movement shrinks and rewires itself to control the upper arm, a property called plasticity. But when Sirigu and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation--a technique that employs magnetic fields to excite neurons in the brain--to stimulate specific fragments of the motor cortex, they found that the "hand areas" in the motor cortex of both men had reassumed their original "wiring." © 2009 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 8: General Principles of Sensory Processing, Touch, and Pain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 12726 - Posted: 06.24.2010

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has given the green light to human clinical trials of an embryonic stem-cell-based therapy for spinal cord injuries, a biotechnology firm said Friday. The regulator has given permission to Geron Corp. of Menlo Park, Calif., to inject embryonic stem cells into eight to 10 people recently paralyzed due to spinal cord injuries. The research aims to regrow nerve tissue. President Barack Obama, who took office on Tuesday, was expected to reverse former president George W. Bush's executive order that restricted federal funding on research involving human embryonic stem cells. Advocates of embryonic stem cell research say it could lead to potential treatments for diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and cancer by restoring organ and tissue function. Scientists say embryonic stem cells are the most useful type because they have the potential to become any type of cell within the body. But the research is controversial since embryos are destroyed to obtain the stem cells. Dr. Thomas Okarma, president and CEO of Geron, said the injections will be made in the spine. Several medical centres around the U.S. will participate in the research, which he said has not received U.S. government funding. © CBC 2009

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 12481 - Posted: 06.24.2010

by Alison Motluk RATS with breathing problems caused by damage to their nerves have had normal breathing restored by bursts of visible light aimed onto the spinal cord. This achievement raises hopes that a miniature light source implanted near the spine might one day allow people with similar injuries to breathe normally. In 2005, Ed Boyden at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology infected neurons in Petri dishes with viruses carrying the ChR2 gene, which codes for a light-sensitive protein called channelrhodopsin-2. The neurons started expressing the protein, and this allowed the researchers to use pulses of light to control when the neurons fired (Nature Neuroscience, vol 8, p 1263). "The nerve cells think they are photoreceptors," says neuroscientist Jerry Silver at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. Silver has now taken things a step further with a study to investigate how this light-operated neuronal switch might be used to restore function lost as a result of nerve damage. His team cut part way through the spinal cords of rats at the second vertebra from the top, where the neck pivots, severing the connection between the spinal cord and the nerves that control one side of the diaphragm. This prevented messages from the brain getting to the diaphragm, leaving the animals with problems breathing. Similar injuries are the leading cause of death in people with spinal cord damage. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 12237 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By Lucy Elkins The human brain: Numerous system which link up and work together The human brain is the most complex organ in the body and contains 20 billion cells, responsible for everything from dreaming and movement to appetite and emotions. It consists mainly of grey matter - the brain cells or neurons where information is processed. It also contains white matter - the nerve fibres which, like electric cables, send out chemical messengers and relay information between the cells. In fact, the brain contains more nerve fibres than there are wires in the entire international telephone network and sometimes the brain's 'wires' can become crossed, as a result of injury, illness or genetics. Scientists used to think a brain injury resulted in permanent damage to the brain's functions, but new research suggests this is not necessarily the case. 'When one area of our brain is damaged we now know from scans that the functions of that area are distributed elsewhere,' says Dr Keith Muir, a senior lecturer in neuroscience at Glasgow University. © 2008 Associated Newspapers Ltd

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 11928 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Scientists from three western Canadian universities are using a microchip as they try to encourage nerves cells to reconnect the brain, spinal cord, and the body. If they succeed, the research could mean "a new life for people with brain or spinal cord injuries," said Naweed Syed, research director at the University of Calgary's Hotchkiss Brain Institute, in a release Thursday. Using a microchip to encourage nerve cells to reconnect could help people with brain or spinal cord injuries, said Naweed Syed, research director of the University of Calgary's Hotchkiss Brain Institute. (University of Calgary/Ken Bendiktsen) The chip could also help people with degenerative diseases, said University of Saskatchewan neuroscientist Valerie Verge. The team is close to knowing how to use computer chips to facilitate the regeneration process, she said. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research gave the team, the Western Canada Regeneration Initiative, a $2.25-million grant Thursday to boost their research. Brain surgeons, electrical engineers, neurologists, and neuroscience researchers from the universities of Calgary, Alberta and Saskatchewan are working on the project. © CBC 2008

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry; Chapter 11: Motor Control and Plasticity
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain; Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 11397 - Posted: 06.24.2010