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David Perlman, Chronicle Science Editor PDT SAN FRANCISCO -- In a world where Nature is "red in tooth and claw" as Tennyson wrote, a handful of predatory garter snakes have won an evolutionary arms race against a tribe of rough-skinned newts so poisonous that the toxin in just one newt could kill thousands of mice or a dozen humans. It's a saga of what biologists call co-evolution. For many millennia the two species have competed against each other, evolving through natural selection in order to survive in the territory they share. Generation after generation, the newts have developed more and more powerful poison in their skins to protect themselves against the hungry snakes, and the snakes have evolved stronger and stronger resistance to the poison, so they can eat the newts in safety. Now biologists tracking more than 20,000 garter snakes and 500 newts in 28 habitats along the Pacific coast have discovered four sites in California where the snakes have clearly won the arms race: Evolution has given them a kind of super-resistance that overcomes the strongest poison the newts can possibly stir up. In other words, the snakes are free to gobble up their prey with impunity from now on. © 2008 Hearst Communications Inc

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 6: Evolution of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 0: ; Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 11403 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By David A. Fahrenthold and Steven Mufson A federal appeals court yesterday threw out the Environmental Protection Agency's approach to limiting mercury emitted from power-plant smokestacks, saying the agency ignored laws and twisted logic when it imposed new standards that were favorable to plant owners. The ruling, issued by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, was another judicial rejection of the Bush administration's pollution policies. It comes less than a year after the U.S. Supreme Court rebuked the administration and the EPA for refusing to regulate greenhouse gases. This court's critique -- which undid a controversial program to "trade" emissions of mercury, a potent neurotoxin -- was especially sharp. It compared the EPA to the capricious Queen of Hearts in "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland," saying the agency had followed its own desires and ignored the "plain text" of the law. "What the administration did when they came in was to essentially try to torpedo environmental regulations," said James Pew, a lawyer with the activist group Earthjustice who worked on the case. "This really is a repudiation of the Bush administration's environmental legacy." Coal-fired power plants are responsible for about a third of the country's total mercury emissions. In the Washington area, mercury pollution in waterways has triggered advisories against consuming too much fish from the Chesapeake Bay, the Potomac River and other bodies of water. © Copyright 1996-2008 The Washington Post Company

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 11299 - Posted: 06.24.2010

United States researchers suggest long-ago lead exposure can make an aging person's brain work as if it's five years older than it really is. "We're trying to offer a caution that a portion of what has been called normal aging might in fact be due to ubiquitous environmental exposures like lead," says Dr. Brian Schwartz of Johns Hopkins University, a leader in the study of lead's delayed effects. The notion of long-delayed effects is familiar; tobacco and asbestos, for example, can lead to cancer. But in recent years, scientists are coming to appreciate that exposure to other pollutants in early life also may promote disease much later on. "It's an emerging area" for research, said Dr. Philip Landrigan of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. It certainly makes sense that if a substance destroys brain cells in early life, the brain may cope by drawing on its reserve capacity until it loses still more cells with aging, he said. Only then would symptoms like forgetfulness or tremors appear. Studying delayed effects in people is difficult because they generally must be followed for a long time. Research with lead is easier because scientists can measure the amount that has accumulated in the shinbone over decades and get a read on how much lead a person has been exposed to in the past. © CBC 2008

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 11255 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By Elizabeth Quill Your mother may have warned that you'd get a tummy ache if you scarfed down your food, but for one Australian snake, eating too fast could be deadly. The death adder dines on frogs, but some of them are poisonous. So the snake has learned patience: After striking a particular poisonous frog, it waits for its victim's toxin to degrade before it dines. The finding could help ecologists decipher how one species can outevolve another. The death adder stabs unsuspecting frogs with its fangs, injecting venom to kill its supper. The frogs have fought back, however, evolving various defenses--longer legs for bigger jumps or chemical substances that taste nasty and can kill. Ecologists Ben Phillips and Richard Shine, both of the University of Sydney, Australia, decided to study the snake's general feeding behavior. And when they did, they stumbled upon a strange twist in this evolutionary arms race. The team dropped frogs of various species in the snakes' glass pens and kept a video camera rolling to record the action as the snakes captured their prey. The snakes gobbled up nontoxic frogs right after injecting them with venom, but they took more time with two other species, the researchers report in the December issue of The American Naturalist. The snake waited 10 minutes before munching on the marbled frog, which produces a gluelike substance on its skin when irritated. © 2007 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 10979 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By Deborah Mitchell CHICAGO (Reuters Health) - Physicians, nurses and other health care providers should be aware that patients receiving intravenous treatment with the antifungal drug voriconazole may develop a range of neurological side effects, including auditory and visual hallucinations, according to a report presented at the 47th annual Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Voriconazole, sold under the trade name Vfend, is a relatively new drug used to treat serious fungus infections, such as invasive mold infections and invasive candidiasis. Many of these patients are extremely ill and are receiving several different drugs, which makes it difficult to distinguish the side effects of specific drugs from the symptoms of the underlying illness. To estimate the frequency and seriousness of voriconazole side effects, Dr. Dimitrios Zonios and colleagues at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, evaluated patients in an ongoing prospective study that was assessing voriconazole toxicity. The researchers focused on side effects of the central nervous system, which are not well characterized for the drug. Between March 2006 and June 2007, the researchers evaluated 66 cancer patients who were being treated with intravenous voriconazole at their institution. Careful interviews and toxicity evaluations were conducted for each patient. © 1996-2007 Scientific American, Inc

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 16: Psychopathology: Biological Basis of Behavior Disorders
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 12: Psychopathology: Biological Basis of Behavioral Disorders
Link ID: 10769 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Troops exposed to sarin risk brain damage: report U.S. Army 1st Armored Division elements pass a burning Iraqi tank during Operation Desert Storm. Scientists have found evidence that the kind of low-level exposure to sarin gas experienced by more than 100,000 U.S. troops in the first Gulf war can cause "lasting brain deficits," The New York Times reported on Wednesday. REUTERS/U.S. Army/Handout WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Scientists have found evidence that the kind of low-level exposure to sarin gas experienced by more than 100,000 U.S. troops in the first Gulf war can cause "lasting brain deficits," The New York Times reported on Wednesday. While the results are preliminary, scientists working with the U.S. Department of Defense said they found apparent changes in the brain's connective tissue -- known as white matter -- in soldiers exposed to the gas. The extent of the changes -- less white matter and slightly larger brain cavities -- correspond to the extent of exposure, the Times reported on its Web site. The results are to be published in the June issue of the journal NeuroToxicology, it said. The report is likely to revive the debate over why so many troops returned from the 1991 Gulf conflict with unexplained physical problems. Many scientists have questioned whether Gulf war-related illnesses have a physiological basis. © 1996-2007 Scientific American, Inc.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 10307 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By JOHN HEILPRIN WASHINGTON -- Companies that make or distribute toys, zippers and other children's products will face tougher government scrutiny to keep out any lead that could poison and kill children or harm their brain development. The Environmental Protection Agency agreed in response to legal pressure to write up to 120 importing and manufacturing companies by the end of the month, instructing them to provide health and safety studies if any lead might be found in the products they make for children. "Parents still need to be vigilant about the recalls on products marketed to children that might contain lead, and take those products away from children as soon as they are recalled," Jessica Frohman, co-chair of the Sierra Club's national toxics committee, said Sunday. The EPA letters are part of a settlement it signed Friday with the Sierra Club and another advocacy group, Improving Kids' Environment. The agency also must tell the Consumer Product Safety Commission "that information EPA has reviewed raises questions about the adequacy of quality control measures by companies importing and/or distributing children's jewelry." Lead, a highly toxic element, can cause severe nerve damage, especially in children. The EPA says lead emissions have dropped more than 90 percent since it was first listed as an air pollutant in 1976, mainly by removing lead from gasoline. Other sources of exposure to it include food and soil, solid waste, coal, oil, iron and steel production, lead smelters and tobacco smoke. © 2007 The Associated Press

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 10182 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Clear summer skies may cloud our thoughts of air pollution. But however clear the day might be, pollution from cars, trucks and the burning of fossil fuels still abounds. And it doesn't just affect those of us who breathe it. A new study suggests that those who can't breathe yet are also at risk. "Children who had had more exposure in the womb to these combustion-related air pollutants scored significantly lower on the tests for mental development, and were more than twice, almost three times as likely to be developmentally delayed compared to the less exposed children," says environmental health scientist and molecular epidemiologist Frederica Perera. Her research team tested the mental development of 183 New York City kids at ages one, two and three. Their mothers wore air monitors during the final month of pregnancy to measure their exposure to pollutants. "The pollutants we're looking at are extremely widespread, really everywhere, not only in the urban areas but, in the suburban areas as well," she says. "We generate a lot of these pollutants locally, right here out on our streets and highways, we also have pollution from smoke stacks and power plants." © ScienCentral, 2000-2006.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 9004 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Jacqueline Ruttimann Imitation may be the sincerest form of flattery, but for some it's about survival. Animals often avoid predators by copying the appearance of poisonous creatures. Usually the impostor tries to look like the most toxic species around, or imitates a range of toxic animals. But this is not so in the case of Ecuadorian frog Allobates zaparo. This frog chooses to mimic the less toxic of two local species. "It runs counter to traditional models," says Molly Cummings of the University of Texas, Austin, who describes the frog's strategy in this week's Nature1. The poison frogs Epipedobates bilinguis and Epipedobates parvulus share a similar warning sign: a bright red back. But the less poisonous and rarer of the two, E. bilinguis, also has yellow markings on its upper arms and thighs. Cummings found that when A. zaparo was found in the same region as one of these poisonous species, it would imitate that one. But in areas where all three species lived, A. zaparo tended to mimic E. bilinguis. This is odd. Mimics usually evolve to imitate the more abundant or more toxic species, says Cummings, because that normally guarantees the most protection. ©2006 Nature Publishing Group

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 6: Evolution of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 8631 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By Juliet Eilperin Women in coastal communities have twice as much mercury in their blood as those living inland, according to an analysis by an Environmental Protection Agency scientist. The preliminary findings, based on a survey of 3,600 women conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1999 and 2002, provide fresh evidence of the link between fish consumption and concentrations of methylmercury, a neurotoxin that causes developmental problems in young children. The study focused on the 10 percent of women with the highest mercury levels, and in that group, it found that inland residents had an average level of 2.4 parts per billion, compared with 5.9 parts per billion for coastal residents. EPA guidelines hold that mercury levels higher than 3.5 parts per billion pose a possible health threat. Mercury, spewed into the air in emissions from power plants and other sources, ends up in water and accumulates in predator fish such as tuna and swordfish. In pregnant women with high levels, methylmercury crosses the placenta and can affect the developing brain of the fetus. "What's evident in these data is there's a real difference between the coastal and non-coastal" women, said Kathryn Mahaffey, who conducted the analysis as director of the EPA's division of exposure assessment, coordination and policy. "The message is people need to eat a variety of foods and, when choosing fish species, they need to choose more than one type of fish." © Copyright 1996-2005 The Washington Post Company

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 7939 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By Petula Dvorak, Washington Post Staff Writer District health officials prowled many of the stores in Adams Morgan yesterday that carry plantain chips, tamarindo candies and other Latino specialties in search of one particular treat that is dangerous to children. The thumb-size shakers of Lucas Limon -- a sweet-and-sour powder made in Mexico that kids love to "waterfall," or knock back whole -- were found in one store earlier this week by a congressional staff member studying dangerous food imports. The 39-cent candy -- meant to be a seasoning for fruit, ice cream or chips -- has been targeted in other cities across the United States after health officials found it contained six to seven times the maximum amount of lead a person can safely consume in one day. Gregg A. Pane, director of the D.C. Department of Health, said no packets of the treat were found yesterday by Health Department employees who visited about a dozen stores along Columbia Road NW. "Hopefully, this was an isolated find," Pane said. One mother who ran into the health workers was surprised by the news yesterday. "Lucas Limon? Yes, I buy that for my kids," said Maria Diaz, who was stopped by a health official while running her errands. © Copyright 1996-2005 The Washington Post Company

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 7278 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Roxanne Khamsi When snakes evolved venom, they co-opted proteins from all over their bodies, says an analysis of 24 different toxins. Surprisingly, very tiny tweaks were enough to transform harmless proteins into deadly poison, and this may help drug designers to create proteins with precise biological effects. Venomous snakes developed glands for the storage and dispersal of their saliva about 60-70 million years ago. Since then, various species have built up an arsenal of toxins to attack their victims. Different venoms attack different types of cell in the body, for example muscle cells or blood cells. This dramatic specificity has led scientists to speculate that the venoms originate from proteins produced in different organs throughout the body, which already interact with these cell types. But champions of this theory lacked hard evidence from more than a few toxins. Despite the incredible changes in bioactivity that occur, the proteins' basic shapes don't change notably. ©2005 Nature Publishing Group

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 6950 - Posted: 06.24.2010

David Perlman, Chronicle Science Editor There stood Jack Dumbacher, innocently trying to trap a gorgeous bird of paradise in the mist net he'd set up for his research in a New Guinea forest, when the net entangled a flying stranger, all vivid orange and black. The unwanted bird clawed Dumbacher's fingers, nipped them with its beak, and when the startled scientist put a bleeding finger to his mouth, he suddenly felt a burning, tingling sensation on his tongue and lips -- which soon became briefly numb. The bird was a hooded pitohui (pronounced PIT-a-hooey), and the encounter in Papua New Guinea 15 years ago led the ornithologist to abandon his research into birds of paradise and to follow a mysterious, deadly poison that links the birds in the highland Papuan villages to frogs in the lowland South American jungles of Colombia -- and to beetles in both far-off habitats. Dumbacher and his colleagues have now discovered that a family of beetles in New Guinea and their distant relatives more than 9,500 miles away, on the other side of the Pacific, are apparently responsible for the toxins in Dumbacher's pitohui birds -- the first poisonous birds discovered anywhere - - and Phyllobates terribilis, the poison-dart frogs of Colombia. The frogs got their name because the Choco Indians use the same poison to tip their arrows and blowpipe darts when they hunt for monkeys and other game animals. ©2005 San Francisco Chronicle

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 6865 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Hyperactive fish, stupid frogs, fearless mice and seagulls that fall over. It sounds like a weird animal circus, but this is no freak show. Animals around the world are increasingly behaving in bizarre ways, and the cause is environmental pollution. The chemicals to blame are known as endocrine disruptors, and range from heavy metals such as lead to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and additives such as bisphenol A. For decades, biologists have known that these chemicals can alter the behaviour of wild animals. And in recent years it has become clear that pollutants can cause gender-bending effects by altering animals' physiology, particularly their sexual organs. But now two major reviews have revealed that the chemicals are having a much greater impact on animal behaviour than anyone suspected. Low concentrations of these pollutants are changing both the social and mating behaviours of a raft of species. This potentially poses a far greater threat to survival than, for example, falling sperm counts caused by higher chemical concentrations. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 12: Sex: Evolutionary, Hormonal, and Neural Bases; Chapter 5: Hormones and the Brain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 8: Hormones and Sex; Chapter 8: Hormones and Sex
Link ID: 6065 - Posted: 06.24.2010

NYBORG, DENMARK--The next time you step on a cockroach, you may be committing an act of mercy. At least its end will come quicker than it would have if the insect fell prey to the parasitic wasp Ampulex compressa, which delivers a paralyzing sting to the brain so that its hungry brood can devour the living roach from the inside out. Now researchers have found receptors on the wasp's stinger that may guide the neurotoxic strike. The sting of A. compressa paralyzes its prey, the cockroach Periplaneta Americana, for 4 or 5 weeks--enough time for the wasp's eggs to hatch, feed, and pupate inside their helpless host. For this strategy to work, the wasp must deliver its venom--a cocktail of neurotoxins--directly to the roach's brain. To investigate what guides the sting, Ram Gal and Frederic Libersat of Ben-Gurion University in Beer-Sheva, Israel, first introduced the wasp to roaches whose brains had been removed. Normally, it takes about a minute for the wasp to find its target, sting, and fly off. But in the brainless roaches, the wasps searched the empty head cavity for an average of 10 minutes. A radioactive tracer injected into the wasps revealed that when they finally did sting, they used about 1/6 the usual amount of venom. The wasps knew something was amiss, says Gal, who presented the findings here on 10 August at a meeting of the International Society for Neuroethology. Copyright © 2004 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 5991 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Nanoparticles cause brain damage in fish, according to a study of the toxicity of synthetic carbon molecules called "buckyballs". The soccer-ball-shaped molecules show great promise in nanotechnology. But the preliminary study raises the possibility that nanomaterials could cause significant environmental harm, although much further work is needed to establish the extent of this risk. Eva Oberdýrster of Southern Methodist University in Dallas, US, who led the study, found modest concentrations of buckyballs in water caused significant harm to two aquatic animals. Water fleas were killed by the addition of the tiny carbon balls, and fish showed up to a 17-fold increase in brain damage compared with unexposed animals. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 5204 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Industry, Environmentalists Argue Over How and When to Remove Toxic Metal By Guy Gugliotta WILSONVILLE, Ala. -- Larry Monroe pointed to a set of eight manhole cover-size plates mounted on the exhaust vent to limit mercury emissions from Gaston 3, a coal-burning power plant that feeds electricity to a half-dozen southern states. Gaston 3 and plants like it, the backbone of the U.S. power industry, are the focus of a furious debate over mercury pollution -- how much and how fast the nation should move to regulate a toxic metal capable of causing severe neurological damage, especially to fetuses and young children. Each of the plates at Gaston 3 houses an injector that squirts activated carbon dust into Gaston 3's flue gas. Particles of mercury cling to the carbon, which is then trapped by filters and discarded as toxic waste. © 2004 The Washington Post Company

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 5133 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Study of high-seafood diet points to poison's long-lasting impact. HELEN PEARSON Eating seafood that contains mercury can affect the brain development of children in their adolescence, according to a study of people in the Faroe Islands. The study fuels an ongoing debate about the health effects of a form of mercury called methylmercury, which accumulates in large marine animals such as swordfish and whales. Some researchers think these compounds are toxic only to babies as they develop in the womb, and that older children are unlikely to suffer developmental problems from the poison. © Nature News Service / Macmillan Magazines Ltd 2004

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 4932 - Posted: 06.24.2010

by Erik Ness Attention, parents: Now that you've seen your kids' first report cards of the year, it's time for a little homework of your own. No doubt you're doing the best you can to ensure your little ones' eventual membership in Mensa -- promoting stimulating dinner conversation, reading a chapter together each night, maybe even playing Mozart during bath time. But wait -- there's more. You'll find your next assignment in the pages of Colleen Moore's Silent Scourge: Children, Pollution, and Why Scientists Disagree. You probably already know that lead is not an appropriate component of any cerebral calisthenics program. But nor is it the only pollutant that can stunt intellectual development. In Silent Scourge, Moore, a developmental psychologist, reviews the case against lead and five additional types of pollutants -- mercury, PCBs, pesticides, noise, and radioactive and chemical wastes. With the possible exception of noise, most people recognize these pollutants as harmful and wouldn't actively incorporate them into K-12 curriculums or meal plans. But that doesn't mean we've got the necessary information -- or power -- to protect kids from them. Each of these pollutants has been the object of protracted debate, the kind of media-moderated, he-said/she-said dispute that frequently leaves us more worn down than wised up. Moore cuts through the confusion, using lay language to explain the dangers each pollutant poses to child development, including intellectual function, behavior, emotional state, and overall physical and psychological well-being. © 2003, Grist Magazine, Inc. All rights reserved.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 4735 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Survey finds mercury in 4 species at markets in Bay Area Jane Kay, Chronicle Environment Writer Four popular varieties of fish sold by high-end markets in the Bay Area contain toxic mercury at levels suspected of causing health problems, a Chronicle/CBS5 survey has found. Recent reports have raised new concerns about the mercury content of such big, ocean-caught fish as swordfish and tuna, including a study last year of local residents who ate fish several times a week. The Chronicle and CBS5 wanted to find out just how much mercury a consumer might be getting from fish sold at some of the Bay Area's best fish markets. The results underscore what many longtime fish lovers and health- conscious consumers may not completely understand -- that consuming large amounts of certain types of fish can jeopardize one's health. And for some people, particularly children and pregnant women, no amount of these fish would be safe. ©2003 San Francisco Chronicle

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology; Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 4590 - Posted: 06.24.2010