Chapter 5. The Sensorimotor System
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By RONI CARYN RABIN The Food and Drug Administration on Thursday approved a powerful long-acting opioid painkiller, alarming some addiction experts who fear that its widespread use may contribute to the rising tide of prescription drug overdoses. The new drug, Hysingla, and another drug approved earlier this year, Zohydro, contain pure hydrocodone, a narcotic, without the acetaminophen used in other opioids. But Hysingla is to be made available as an “abuse-deterrent” tablet that cannot easily be broken or crushed by addicts looking to snort or inject it. Nearly half of the nation’s overdose deaths involved painkillers like hydrocodone and oxycodone, according to a 2010 study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. More than 12 million people used prescription painkillers for nonmedical reasons that year, according to the study. Prescription opioid abuse kills more adults annually than heroin and cocaine combined, and sends 420,000 Americans to emergency rooms every year, according to the C.D.C. Hysingla, however, will not be not abuse-proof, said officials at the F.D.A. and the drug’s manufacturer, Purdue Pharma. Its extended-release formulation, a pill to be taken once every 24 hours by patients requiring round-the-clock pain relief, will contain as much as 120 milligrams of hydrocodone. The F.D.A. warned that doses of 80 milligrams or more “should not be prescribed to people who have not previously taken an opioid medication,” but officials described the abuse-deterrent formulation as a step forward. © 2014 The New York Times Company
By Emily Underwood WASHINGTON, D.C.—Rapid changes unfold in the brain after a person's hand is amputated. Within days—and possibly even hours—neurons that once processed sensations from the palm and fingers start to shift their allegiances, beginning to fire in response to sensations in other body parts, such as the face. But a hand transplant can bring these neurons back into the fold, restoring the sense of touch nearly back to normal, according to a study presented here this week at the annual conference of the Society for Neuroscience. To date, roughly 85 people worldwide have undergone hand replant or transplant surgery, an 8- to 10-hour procedure in which surgeons reattach the bones, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, and soft tissue between the patient's severed wrist and their own hand or one from a donor, often using a needle finer than a human hair. After surgery, studies have shown that it takes about 2 years for the peripheral nerves to regenerate, with sensation slowly creeping through the palm and into the fingertips at a rate of roughly 2 mm per day, says Scott Frey, a cognitive neuroscientist at the University of Missouri, Columbia. Even once the nerves have regrown, the surgically attached hand remains far less sensitive to touch than the original hand once was. One potential explanation is that the brain's sensory "map" of the body—a series of cortical ridges and folds devoted to processing touch in different body parts—loses its ability to respond to the missing hand in the absence of sensory input, Frey says. If that's true, the brain may need to reorganize that sensory map once again in order to fully restore sensation. © 2014 American Association for the Advancement of Science
By Kate Baggaley WASHINGTON — Being stroked in the right place at the right speed activates specialized nerve fibers. The caresses that people rate most pleasant line up with the probable locations of the fibers on the skin, new research suggests. “Touch is important in terms of our physical health and our psychological well-being,” said Susannah Walker, who presented the research November 17 at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. “But very little attention has been paid to the neurological basis of that effect.” Sensors in the skin known as C-tactile afferents respond strongly to being stroked at between three and 10 centimeters per second. The sensors send signals to the brain that make touch rewarding, says Walker, a neuroscientist at Liverpool John Moores University in England. Walker and a colleague played videos for 93 participants, showing a hand caressing a person’s palm, back, shoulder or forearm, either at 5 cm/s or 30 cm/s. Participants rated the 5 cm/s stroking — the best speed to get the skin’s sensors firing — as the most pleasant, except on the palm, where there are no stroking sensors. The back got the highest pleasantness ratings, forearms lowest. The spots where people like to be touched may not line up with the areas traditionally considered most sensitive. Though less finely attuned to texture or temperature than the hands or face, the back and shoulders are sensitive to a different, social sort of touch. © Society for Science & the Public 2000 - 2014.
By Elahe Izadi Putting very little babies through numerous medical procedures is especially challenging for physicians, in part because reducing the pain they experience is so difficult. Typically for patients, "the preferred method of reducing pain is opiates. Obviously you don't want to give opiates to babies," says neurologist Regina Sullivan of NYU Langone Medical Center. "Also, it's difficult to know when a baby is in pain and not in pain." In recent years, research has shown environmental factors, like a mother or caregiver having contact with a baby during a painful procedure, appears to reduce the amount of pain felt by the baby, at least as indicated by the child's behavior, Sullivan said. But she and Gordon Barr of the University of Pennsylvania, an expert in pain, were interested in whether a mother's presence actually changed the brain functioning of a baby in pain. So Sullivan and Barr turned to rats. Specifically mama and baby rats who were in pain. And they found that hundreds of genes in baby rats' brains were more or less active, depending on whether the mothers were present. Sullivan and Barr presented their committee peer-reviewed research before the Society for Neuroscience annual meeting Tuesday. They gave mild electric shocks to infant rats, some of which had their mothers around and others who didn't. The researchers analyzed a specific portion of the infants' brains, the amygdala region of neurons, which is where emotions like fear are processed.
By Tanya Lewis WASHINGTON — From the stroke of a mother's hand to the embrace of a lover, sensations of gentle touch activate a specialized set of nerves in humans. The brain is widely believed to contain a "map" of the body for sensing touch. But humans may also have an emotional body map that corresponds to feelings of gentle touch, according to new research presented here Sunday (Nov. 16) at the 44th annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. For humans and all social species, touch plays a fundamental role in the formation and maintenance of social bonds, study researcher Susannah Walker, a behavioral neuroscientist at Liverpool John Moores University in the United KIngdom, said in a news conference. [Top 10 Things That Make Humans Special] "Indeed, a lack of touch can have a detrimental effect on both our physical health and our psychological well-being," Walker said. In a clinical setting, physical contact with premature infants has been shown to boost growth, decrease stress and aid brain development. But not much research has focused on the basis of these effects in the nervous system, Walker said. The human body has a number of different kinds of nerves for perceiving touch. Thicker nerves surrounded by a fatty layer of insulation (called myelin) identify touch and temperature and rapidly send those signals to the brain, whereas thinner nerves that lack this insulation send sensory information more slowly.
Stem cells can be used to heal the damage in the brain caused by Parkinson's disease, according to scientists in Sweden. They said their study on rats heralded a "huge breakthrough" towards developing effective treatments. There is no cure for the disease, but medication and brain stimulation can alleviate symptoms. Parkinson's UK said there were many questions still to be answered before human trials could proceed. The disease is caused by the loss of nerve cells in the brain that produce the chemical dopamine ,which helps to control mood and movement. To simulate Parkinson's, Lund University researchers killed dopamine-producing neurons on one side of the rats' brains. They then converted human embryonic stem cells into neurons that produced dopamine. Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's is one of the commonest neurodegenerative diseases These were injected into the rats' brains, and the researchers found evidence that the damage was reversed. There have been no human clinical trials of stem-cell-derived neurons, but the researchers said they could be ready for testing by 2017. Malin Parmar, associate professor of developmental and regenerative neurobiology, said: "It's a huge breakthrough in the field [and] a stepping stone towards clinical trials." A similar method has been tried in a limited number of patients. It involved taking brain tissue from multiple aborted foetuses to heal the brain. Clinical trials were abandoned after mixed results, but about a third of the patients had foetal brain cells that functioned for 25 years. BBC © 2014
Link ID: 20292 - Posted: 11.08.2014
By Kelly Servick Using data from old clinical trials, two groups of researchers have found a better way to predict how amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progresses in different patients. The winning algorithms—designed by non-ALS experts—outperformed the judgments of a group of ALS clinicians given the same data. The advances could make it easier to test whether new drugs can slow the fatal neurodegenerative disease. The new work was inspired by the so-called ALS Prediction Prize, a joint effort by the ALS-focused nonprofit Prize4Life and Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods, a computational biology project whose sponsors include IBM, Columbia University, and the New York Academy of Sciences. Announced in 2012, the $50,000 award was designed to bring in experts from outside the ALS field to tackle the notoriously unpredictable illness. Liuxia Wang, a data analyst at the marketing company Sentrana in Washington, D.C., was used to helping companies make business decisions based on big data sets, such as information about consumer choices, but says she “didn’t know too much about this life science thing” until she got an unusual query from a client. One of the senior managers she worked with revealed that her son had just been diagnosed with ALS and wondered if Sentrana’s analytics could apply to patient data, too. When Wang set out to investigate, she found the ALS Prediction Prize. The next step, she said, was to learn something about ALS. The disease destroys the neurons that control muscle movement, causing gradual paralysis and eventually killing about half of patients within 3 years of diagnosis. But the speed of its progression varies widely. About 10% of patients live a decade or more after being diagnosed. That makes it hard for doctors to answer patients’ questions about the future, and it’s a big problem for testing new ALS treatments. © 2014 American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Keyword: ALS-Lou Gehrig's Disease
Link ID: 20278 - Posted: 11.04.2014
|By Sandra Upson Jan Scheuermann is not your average experimental subject. Diagnosed with spinocerebellar degeneration, she is only able to move her head and neck. The paralysis, which began creeping over her muscles in 1996, has been devastating in many ways. Yet two years ago she seized an opportunity to turn her personal liability into an extraordinary asset for neuroscience. In 2012 Scheuermann elected to undergo brain surgery to implant two arrays of electrodes on her motor cortex, a band of tissue on the surface of the brain. She did so as a volunteer in a multi-year study at the University of Pittsburgh to develop a better brain-computer interface. When she visits the lab, researchers hook up her brain to a robotic arm and hand, which she practices moving using her thoughts alone. The goal is to eventually allow other paralyzed individuals to regain function by wiring up their brains directly to a computer or prosthetic limb. The electrodes in her head record the firing patterns of about 150 of her neurons. Specific patterns of neuronal activity encode her desire to perform different movements, such as swinging the arm to the left or clasping the fingers around a cup. Two thick cables relay the data from her neurons to a computer, where software can identify Scheuermann’s intentions. The computer can then issue appropriate commands to move the robotic limb. On a typical workday, Jan Scheuermann arrives at the university around 9:15 am. Using her chin, she maneuvers her electric wheelchair into a research lab headed by neuroscientist Andrew Schwartz and settles in for a day of work. Scientific American Mind spoke to Scheuermann to learn more about her experience as a self-proclaimed “guinea pig extraordinaire.” © 2014 Scientific American,
Link ID: 20276 - Posted: 11.04.2014
Colin Barras It's the sweetest relief… until it's not. Scratching an itch only gives temporary respite before making it worse – we now know why. Millions of people experience chronic itching at some point, as a result of conditions ranging from eczema to kidney failure to cancer. The condition can have a serious impact on quality of life. On the face of it, the body appears to have a coping mechanism: scratching an itch until it hurts can bring instant relief. But when the pain wears off the itch is often more unbearable than before – which means we scratch even harder, sometimes to the point of causing painful skin damage. "People keep scratching even though they might end up bleeding," says Zhou-Feng Chen at the Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, Missouri, who has now worked out why this happens. His team's work in mice suggests it comes down to an unfortunate bit of neural crosstalk. We know that the neurotransmitter serotonin helps control pain, and that pain – from the heavy scratching – helps soothe an itch, so Chen's team set out to explore whether serotonin is also involved in the itching process. They began by genetically engineering mice to produce no serotonin. Normally, mice injected with a chemical that irritates their skin will scratch up a storm, but the engineered mice seemed to have almost no urge to scratch. Genetically normal mice given a treatment to prevent serotonin leaving the brain also avoided scratching after being injected with the chemical, indicating that the urge to scratch begins when serotonin from the brain reaches the irritated spot. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.
Keyword: Pain & Touch
Link ID: 20270 - Posted: 11.03.2014
BY Laura Sanders The first time Nathan Whitmore zapped his brain, he had a college friend standing by, ready to pull the cord in case he had a seizure. That didn’t happen. Instead, Whitmore started experimenting with the surges of electricity, and he liked the effects. Since that first cautious attempt, he’s become a frequent user of, and advocate for, homemade brain stimulators. Depending on where he puts the electrodes, Whitmore says, he has expanded his memory, improved his math skills and solved previously intractable problems. The 22-year-old, a researcher in a National Institute on Aging neuroscience lab in Baltimore, writes computer programs in his spare time. When he attaches an electrode to a spot on his forehead, his brain goes into a “flow state,” he says, where tricky coding solutions appear effortlessly. “It’s like the computer is programming itself.” Whitmore no longer asks a friend to keep him company while he plugs in, but he is far from alone. The movement to use electricity to change the brain, while still relatively fringe, appears to be growing, as evidenced by a steady increase in active participants in an online brain-hacking message board that Whitmore moderates. This do-it-yourself community, some of whom make their own devices, includes people who want to get better test scores or crush the competition in video games as well as people struggling with depression and chronic pain, Whitmore says. As reckless as it sounds to juice a brain at home with a 9-volt battery and 40 dollars’ worth of spare parts, this technology’s buzz is based on legit science. Small laboratory studies suggest that carefully controlled brain stimulation can boost a person’s memory and math abilities, hone attention and fast-track learning. The U. S. military is interested and is funding studies to test brain stimulation as a way to boost soldiers’ alertness and vigilance. The technique may even be a viable treatment for pernicious mental disorders such as major depression, according to other laboratory-based studies. © Society for Science & the Public 2000 - 2014.
By Rachel Feltman Sometimes the process of scientific discovery can be a real headache. In a recent Danish study, scientists were thrilled to give painful migraines to 86 percent of their study subjects. Migraines are a particularly painful mystery for researchers to solve: More than 10 percent of people worldwide are affected by these intense headaches, but no one has been able to pinpoint a specific cause. What makes these headaches, which can cause incapacitating pain and nausea, different from all other headaches? That's why scientists had to make their patients suffer -- researchers keep trying to trigger migraines using different mechanisms. The more successful they are, the more likely it is that the mechanism being tested is actually a common cause of migraines. And once we know what the common causes are, we can try to develop better treatments that target them. In this case the 86 percent "success" rate, which the researchers say is much higher than results with other triggers, was owed to increases of a naturally occurring substance called cyclic AMP, or cAMP. Our bodies use cAMP to dilate blood vessels, so an increase of it can increase the flow of blood. To see if cAMP might cause migraines, the researchers dosed their subjects with cilostazol, a drug that increases cAMP concentrations in the body.
Keyword: Pain & Touch
Link ID: 20264 - Posted: 11.01.2014
By CATHERINE SAINT LOUIS More than 50 children in 23 states have had mysterious episodes of paralysis to their arms or legs, according to data gathered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The cause is not known, although some doctors suspect the cases may be linked to infection with enterovirus 68, a respiratory virus that has sickened thousands of children in recent months. Concerned by a cluster of cases in Colorado, the C.D.C. last month asked doctors and state health officials nationwide to begin compiling detailed reports about cases of unusual limb weakness in children. Experts convened by the agency plan next week to release interim guidelines on managing the condition. That so many children have had full or partial paralysis in a short period is unusual, but officials said that the cases seemed to be extremely rare. “At the moment, it looks like whatever the chances are of getting this syndrome are less than one in a million,” said Mark A. Pallansch, the director of the division of viral diseases at the C.D.C. Some of the affected children have lost the use of a leg or an arm, and are having physical therapy to keep their muscles conditioned. Others have sustained more extensive damage and require help breathing. Marie, who asked to be identified by her middle name to protect her family’s privacy, said her 4-year-old son used to climb jungle gyms. But in late September, after the whole family had been sick with a respiratory illness, he started having trouble climbing onto the couch. He walked into Boston Children’s Hospital the day he was admitted. But soon his neck grew so weak, it “flopped completely back like he was a newborn,” Marie said. Typically, the time from when weakness begins until it reaches its worst is one to three days. But for her son, eight mornings in a row, he awoke with a "brand new deficit" until he had some degree of weakness in each limb and had trouble breathing. He was eventually transferred to a Spaulding rehabilitation center, where he is now. © 2014 The New York Times Company
by Bethany Brookshire In many scientific fields, the study of the body is the study of boys. In neuroscience, for example, studies in male rats, mice, monkeys and other mammals outnumber studies in females 5.5 to 1. When scientists are hunting for clues, treatments or cures for a human population that is around 50 percent female, this boys-only club may miss important questions about how the other half lives. So in an effort to reduce this sex bias in biomedical studies, National Institutes of Health director Francis Collins and Office of Research on Women’s Health director Janine Clayton announced in May a new policy that will roll out practices promoting sex parity in research, beginning with a requirement that scientists state whether males, females or both were used in experiments, and moving on to mandate that both males and females are included in all future funded research. The end goal will be to make sure that NIH-funded scientists “balance male and female cells and animals in preclinical studies in all future [grant] applications” to the NIH. In 1993, the NIH Revitalization Act mandated the inclusion of women and minorities in clinical trials. This latest move extends that inclusion to cells and animals in preclinical research. Because NIH funds the work of morethan 300,000 researchers in the United States and other countries, many of whom work on preclinical and basic biomedical science, the new policy has broad implications for the biomedical research community. And while some scientists are pleased with the effort, others are worried that the mandate is ill-conceived and underfunded. In the end, whether it succeeds or fails comes down to interpretation and future implementation. © Society for Science & the Public 2000 - 2014
By BENEDICT CAREY A Polish man who was paralyzed from the chest down after a knife attack several years ago is now able to get around using a walker and has recovered some sensation in his legs after receiving a novel nerve-regeneration treatment, according to a new report that has generated both hope and controversy. The case, first reported widely by the BBC and other British news outlets, has stirred as much excitement on the Internet as it has extreme caution among many experts. “It is premature at best, and at worst inappropriate, to draw any conclusions from a single patient,” said Dr. Mark H. Tuszynski, director of the translational neuroscience unit at the medical school of the University of California, San Diego. That patient — identified as Darek Fidyka, 40 — is the first to recover feeling and mobility after getting the novel therapy, which involves injections of cultured cells at the site of the injury and tissue grafts, the report said. The techniques have shown some promise in animal studies. But the medical team, led by Polish and English doctors, also emphasized that the results would “have to be confirmed in a larger group of patients sustaining similar types of spinal injury” before the treatment could be considered truly effective. The case report was published in the journal Cell Transplantation. The history of spinal injury treatment is studded with false hope and miracle recoveries that could never be replicated, experts said. In previous studies, scientists experimented with some of the same methods used on Mr. Fidyka, with disappointing results. © 2014 The New York Times Company
By Fergus Walsh Medical correspondent A paralysed man has been able to walk again after a pioneering therapy that involved transplanting cells from his nasal cavity into his spinal cord. Darek Fidyka, who was paralysed from the chest down in a knife attack in 2010, can now walk using a frame. The treatment, a world first, was carried out by surgeons in Poland in collaboration with scientists in London. Prof Wagih El Masri Consultant spinal injuries surgeon Details of the research are published in the journal Cell Transplantation. BBC One's Panorama programme had unique access to the project and spent a year charting the patient's rehabilitation. Darek Fidyka, 40, from Poland, was paralysed after being stabbed repeatedly in the back in the 2010 attack. He said walking again - with the support of a frame - was "an incredible feeling", adding: "When you can't feel almost half your body, you are helpless, but when it starts coming back it's like you were born again." He said what had been achieved was "more impressive than man walking on the moon". UK research team leader Prof Geoff Raisman: Paralysis treatment "has vast potential" The treatment used olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) - specialist cells that form part of the sense of smell. OECs act as pathway cells that enable nerve fibres in the olfactory system to be continually renewed. In the first of two operations, surgeons removed one of the patient's olfactory bulbs and grew the cells in culture. Two weeks later they transplanted the OECs into the spinal cord, which had been cut through in the knife attack apart from a thin strip of scar tissue on the right. They had just a drop of material to work with - about 500,000 cells. About 100 micro-injections of OECs were made above and below the injury. BBC © 2014
BY Tina Hesman Saey SAN DIEGO — A Golden retriever that inherited a genetic defect that causes muscular dystrophy doesn’t have the disease, giving scientists clues to new therapies for treating muscle-wasting diseases. The dog, Ringo, was bred to have a mutation that causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy in both animals and people. His weak littermates that inherited the same mutation could barely suckle at birth. But Ringo was healthy, with muscles that function normally. One of Ringo’s sons also has the mutation but doesn’t have the disease, said geneticist Natassia Vieira of Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard University October 19 at the annual meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics. The dogs without the disease had a second genetic variant that caused their muscles to make more of a protein called Jagged 1, Vieira and her colleagues discovered. That protein allows muscles to repair themselves. Making more of Jagged 1 appears to compensate for the wasting effect of the muscular dystrophy mutation, although the researchers don’t yet know the exact mechanism. The finding suggests that researchers may one day be able to devise treatments for people with muscular dystrophies by boosting production of Jagged 1 or other muscle repair proteins. N. M. Vieira. The muscular dystrophies: Revealing the genetic and phenotypic variability. American Society of Human Genetics Annual Meeting, San Diego, October 19, 2014. © Society for Science & the Public 2000 - 2014
by Flora Graham This glowing blue web of neurons is usually what researchers examine when searching for a cure for Parkinson's. But a new study, part-funded by Parkinson's UK, hones in on the tiny yellow dots. These are the connections between brain cells known as synapses, has discovered a killer that targets these links, potentially paving the way for new treatments. Soledad Galli at University College London and her colleagues have found that the death of synapses in mice may be due to malfunctioning proteins called Wnt proteins. "If we confirm that Wnt is involved in the early stages of Parkinson's, this throws up exciting possibilities, not just for new treatment targets, but also for new ways to identify people with Parkinson's early on in their condition," says Galli. Most patients currently depend on the drug levodopa, which is over 50 years old and can have severe side-effects, in addition to becoming less effective over time. Moreover, it only masks the symptoms: there is no cure for Parkinson's and no way to stop its progression. Journal reference: Nature Communications, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5992 © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd
|By Amy Yee Pouring a bucket of ice water over one’s head may seem like a distant summer memory. But although the “ice bucket challenge” craze has died down, public awareness of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), commonly known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, has never been stronger. The viral video campaign raised $115 million from more than 3 million donors for the ALS Association. In one month, from July 29 to August 29, donors raised $100.9 million, compared with $2.8 million during the same period the previous year. In early October, the ALS Association began spending that money. It approved $21.7 million of funding for six programs and initiatives by groups that include the academic-industry partnership ALS Accelerated Therapeutics, the New York Genome Center, three California labs that form the Neuro Collaborative, and Project MinE, which will map the genomes of 15,000 people with ALS (about 10 percent of ALS patients have a family member with the disease). The grants focus on developing gene therapies for common ALS genes and exploring approaches to counter two major contributors to the disease, the inflammation of nervous tissue and misfolded proteins in brain cells that control movement. These efforts may not only someday lead to new treatments, but may also point to the cause of ALS. At the level of basic research, scientists do not have a dominant theory from which to work, notes Tom Jessell, a neuroscientist and co-director of Columbia University’s new Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute. Jessell is also the chair of the research advisory board of Project ALS, a nonprofit that identifies and funds ALS research. © 2014 Scientific American
Keyword: ALS-Lou Gehrig's Disease
Link ID: 20213 - Posted: 10.18.2014
By Carl T. Hall Even Clayton Kershaw, the Los Angeles Dodgers’ pitching ace, makes mistakes now and then. And although very few of his mistakes seemed to do Giants hitters much good this season, a team of San Francisco scientists found a way to take full advantage. A new study by UCSF researchers revealed a tendency of the brain’s motion-control system to run off track in a predictable way when we try to perform the same practiced movement over and over. The scientists found the phenomenon first in macaque monkeys, then documented exactly the same thing in Kershaw’s game video. Although he struggled in a playoff appearance last week, the left-hander’s pitching performance during the regular season was among the best on record. It included a minuscule 1.77 earned run average, a nearly flawless no-hitter in June, 239 strikeouts and only 31 walks. He led the major leagues with 10.85 strikeouts per nine innings pitched. In what turned out to be an early warm-up to the playoffs, UCSF scientists Kris Chaisanguanthum, Helen Shen and Philip Sabes delved into the motor-control system of the primate brain. Their study, published in the Journal of Neuroscience, could help design better prosthetic limbs — or make robots that move less like robots and more like Kershaw. Unlike most machines, our brains seem to never stop trying to adapt to new information, making subtle adjustments each time we repeat a particular movement no matter how practiced. This trial-by-trial form of learning has obvious advantages in a fast-changing world, but also seems prone to drift away from spot-on accuracy as those small adjustments go too far.
Keyword: Learning & Memory
Link ID: 20193 - Posted: 10.11.2014
by Andy Coghlan Ten years after the death of everyone's favourite Superman, Christopher Reeve, his son Matthew Reeve is pushing ahead with a spine-tingling clinical trial You're planning a large study of a paralysis treatment that has already helped four young men. What will it entail? This study will include 36 people with spinal cord injuries who will be treated with epidural stimulation – a technique in which a device is used to apply electrical current to the spinal cord. If we see the same results as we did in the first four, this therapy could have a profound impact on thousands of people living with paralysis. It has the potential to become as commonplace as the pacemaker is for cardiac patients. How well has the treatment worked for the four men who have already received it? Prior to epidural stimulation, they had all suffered chronic injuries caused by completely severed spinal cords. All four have seen dramatic improvements, including the ability to voluntarily move their toes, feet, ankles and legs, and even stand at times, when the device is on. One unexpected bonus has been the return of autonomic function, such as bladder and bowel control and sexual function. From a quality-of-life point of view, this is the biggest improvement. Also unexpectedly, these autonomic functions continue in all four men even when the device is switched off, although they still need it to stand, move their legs and do exercises. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.