Chapter 5. The Sensorimotor System

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By Christine Vestal NEW YORK — After a 12-year battle with debilitating abdominal conditions that forced her to stop working, marijuana has helped Lynn Sabulski feel well enough to look for a job. Sabulski is among nearly 14,000 patients in New York state who are certified to use medical marijuana for one of 10 ­conditions, including her ­primary diagnosis, inflammatory bowel disease. Marijuana doesn’t address her underlying disease, but it does relieve her painful symptoms. Nationwide, an estimated 1.4 million patients in 28 states and the District of Columbia use legal medical marijuana for a varying list of conditions. A much smaller number of patients in 16 states use limited extracts of the plant, primarily to treat seizure disorders. In the midst of an opioid crisis, some medical practitioners and researchers say they think that greater use of marijuana for pain relief could result in fewer people using the highly addictive prescription painkillers that led to the epidemic. A 2016 study by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found that states with medical marijuana laws had 25 percent fewer opioid overdose deaths than states that do not have medical marijuana laws. And another study published in Health Affairs last year found that prescriptions for opioid painkillers such as OxyContin, Vicodin and Percocet paid for by Medicare dropped substantially in states that adopted medical marijuana laws. © 1996-2017 The Washington Post

Keyword: Drug Abuse; Pain & Touch
Link ID: 23285 - Posted: 02.27.2017

By KATHRYN SHATTUCK After his short film screened at the Sundance Film Festival in 2008, a euphoric Simon Fitzmaurice was walking the snowy streets of Park City, Utah, when his foot began to hurt. Back home in Ireland that summer, by then dealing with a pronounced limp, he received a shattering diagnosis: motor neuron disease, or M.N.D. (more commonly known in the United States as A.L.S., or Lou Gehrig’s Disease), a neurological disorder that causes increasing muscle weakness and eventual paralysis and is, in most cases, fatal. The doctor gave Mr. Fitzmaurice, then 33, three or four years to live. That might have been the end of any normal existence. But Mr. Fitzmaurice, by his own measure a “bit of a stubborn bastard,” was determined to leave his wife, Ruth, and their two young sons — with a third on the way — a legacy other than self-pity. The result is Mr. Fitzmaurice’s first feature film, and perhaps his salvation — “My Name Is Emily.” The movie, which opened in limited release in the United States on Feb. 17, stars Evanna Lynch, the airy Luna Lovegood of “Harry Potter” fame, as a teenage outlier in both her Dublin foster home and high school who goes on the lam with her only friend (George Webster) to free her father (Michael Smiley) from a mental hospital. The film — with gorgeous scenes of Ms. Lynch plunged, nymphlike, into a cerulean sea or riding shotgun through the emerald countryside in a canary-yellow vintage Renault — won for best cinematography when it debuted at the Galway Film Fleadh in 2015. “I am not trying to prove anything,” Mr. Fitzmaurice wrote in an email, before quickly reconsidering. “Actually, I am trying to prove something. I remember thinking, ‘I must do this to show my children to never give up.’” Mr. Fitzmaurice was writing with his hands when he began the script for “My Name Is Emily.” By the time he was finished, he was writing with his eyes. © 2017 The New York Times Company

Keyword: ALS-Lou Gehrig's Disease
Link ID: 23275 - Posted: 02.24.2017

Laurel Hamers Clusters of a toxic bacterial protein have a surprising structure, differing from similar clumps associated with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s in humans, scientists report in the Feb. 24 Science. These clusters, called amyloids, are defined in part by their structure: straight regions of protein chains called beta strands, folded accordion-style into flat beta sheets, which then stack up to form a fiber. That definition might now need to be broadened. “All the amyloids that have been structurally looked at so far have certain characteristics,” says Matthew Chapman, a biologist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor who wasn’t part of the work. “This is the odd amyloid out right now.” In the human brain, misfolded proteins can form amyloids that trigger neurodegenerative diseases. But amyloids aren’t always a sign of something gone wrong — some bacteria make amyloids to help defend their turf. In Staphylococcus aureus, for example, the PSMα3 protein assembles into amyloids that help the bacteria kill other cells. Previous research suggested that PSMα3 clusters were like any other amyloid. But researchers using X-ray crystallography found that instead of straight beta strands, the PSMα3 fiber was made up of curly structures called alpha helices that resemble an old-fashioned phone cord. The helices still formed a familiar fiber shape just like the beta strands did, but the sheets making up that fiber were rippled instead of flat. |© Society for Science & the Public 2000 - 2017.

Keyword: Alzheimers
Link ID: 23274 - Posted: 02.24.2017

By Diana Kwon Neuroscientists have long debated how itch and pain overlap in the nervous system. Although itch was once thought to arise from the same neurons that generate pain, later observations disputing this theory led many to believe these sensations had distinct neural circuits. In a study published today (February 22) in Neuron, researchers report that a subset of “itch-specific” nerve cells in the murine spinal cord are also involved in sensing pain, bringing the specificity theory into question. “We were surprised that contrary to what the field believes, neurons [in the spinal cord] coded for both pain and itch sensations,” coauthor Shuhao Sun, a neuroscience graduate student at Johns Hopkins University, told The Scientist. “[This] means there can be some crosstalk between these two sensations in the central nervous system.” Historically, the observation that pain could quell itch led many neuroscientists to subscribe to the intensity theory, which suggested that, in the same neurons, weak stimulation generated itch, while strong activation led to pain. However, this theory was largely abandoned around the 1980s when several groups discovered that weak painful stimuli did not lead to itch and that strong itch stimuli did not lead to pain. Instead, many researchers adopted the labeled-line theory, which proposed that there were separate neurons dedicated to each sensation. © 1986-2017 The Scientist

Keyword: Pain & Touch
Link ID: 23273 - Posted: 02.24.2017

Daqing Li and Ying Li In 1969 Geoffrey Raisman, who has died aged 77, introduced the term “plasticity” to describe the ability of damaged nerve tissue to form new synaptic connections. He discovered that damaged nerves in the central nervous system (CNS) could be repaired and developed the theory that white matter (nerve fibres and supporting cells) is like a pathway – when it is disrupted by injury, such as spinal cord injury, growth of the regenerating fibres is blocked. In 1985 he described how olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) “open doors” for newly formed nerve fibres in the nose to enter the CNS. Believing that reconstruction of the damaged pathway is essential to repair of the injured CNS and using the unique door-opening capability of OECs, in 1997, together with colleagues, Geoffrey showed that transplantation of OECs into the damaged spinal cord in experimental models repairs the damaged pathway and results in the regeneration of severed nerve fibres and the restoration of lost functions. The study led to a joint clinical trial with Pawel Tabakow and his team at Wroclaw Medical University, Poland. In 2014 the first patient with a complete severance of the thoracic spinal cord received transplantation of his own OECs. The operation enabled the patient, Darek Fidyka, to gain significant neurological recovery of sensation and voluntary movement. He can now get out of his wheelchair and ride a tricycle. The wider application of OECs has also been investigated. In 2012, with his team at University College London, collaborating with the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology and Southwest hospital, at the Third Military Medical University in Chongqing, China, Geoffrey described the protective effect of OECs in an experimental glaucoma model. The discovery has led to a plan to translate this research to clinical application which, it is hoped, will help many sufferers regain sight.

Keyword: Regeneration; Glia
Link ID: 23266 - Posted: 02.22.2017

By Jessica Hamzelou Three people with paralysis have learned to type by thought alone using a brain implant – at the fastest speeds recorded using such a system. Two have motor neurone disease, also known as ALS – a degenerative disorder that destroys neurons associated with movement – while the other has a spinal cord injury. All three have weakness or paralysis in all of their limbs. There is a chance that those with ALS will eventually lose the ability to speak, too, says Jaimie Henderson, a neurosurgeon at Stanford University Medical Center in California. People who have lost the ability to talk may be offered devices that allow them to select letters on a screen using head, cheek or eye movements. This is how Stephen Hawking communicates, for example. But brain-machine interfaces are also being developed in the hope that they may one day be a more intuitive way of communicating. These involve reading brain activity, either externally or via an implant embedded in the brain, and turning it into a signal that can be used to direct something in the environment. At the moment, these devices are a little slow. Henderson and his colleagues wanted to make a device that was quicker and easier to use than those currently in trials. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Keyword: ALS-Lou Gehrig's Disease ; Robotics
Link ID: 23264 - Posted: 02.22.2017

Many people think of fish and seafood as being healthy. However, new research suggests eating certain species that tend to have high levels of mercury may be linked to a greater risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. Questions remain about the possible impact of mercury in fish, according to a preliminary study released Monday that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's 69th annual meeting in Boston in April. Fish and seafood consumption as a regular part of the diet was not associated with ALS, the study said. "For most people, eating fish is part of a healthy diet," said study author Elijah Stommel of Dartmouth College in Hanover, N.H., and a fellow of the academy. In addition, the authors said their study does not negate the fact that eating fish provides many health benefits. Instead, it suggests people may want to choose species that are known to have a lower mercury content, and avoid consuming fish caught in waters where there is mercury contamination. The researchers stressed that more research is needed before fish consumption guidelines for neurodegenerative illness can be made. While the exact cause of ALS is not known, some previous studies have suggested the neurotoxic metal to be a risk factor for ALS, a progressive neurological disease. ©2017 CBC/Radio-Canada.

Keyword: ALS-Lou Gehrig's Disease ; Neurotoxins
Link ID: 23257 - Posted: 02.21.2017

By Timothy Revell It can be difficult to communicate when you can only move your eyes, as is often the case for people with ALS (also known as motor neurone disease). Microsoft researchers have developed an app to make talking with your eyes easier, called GazeSpeak. GazeSpeak runs on a smartphone and uses artificial intelligence to convert eye movements into speech, so a conversation partner can understand what is being said in real time. The app runs on the listener’s device. They point their smartphone at the speaker as if they are taking a photo. A sticker on the back of the phone, visible to the speaker, shows a grid with letters grouped into four boxes corresponding to looking left, right, up and down. As the speaker gives different eye signals, GazeSpeak registers them as letters. “For example, to say the word ‘task’ they first look down to select the group containing ‘t’, then up to select the group containing ‘a’, and so on,” says Xiaoyi Zhang, who developed GazeSpeak whilst he was an intern at Microsoft. GazeSpeak selects the appropriate letter from each group by predicting the word the speaker wants to say based on the most common English words, similar to predictive text messaging. The speaker indicates they have finished a word by winking or looking straight ahead for two seconds. The system also takes into account added lists of words, like names or places that the speaker is likely to use. The top four word predictions are shown onscreen, and the top one is read aloud. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Keyword: ALS-Lou Gehrig's Disease ; Robotics
Link ID: 23248 - Posted: 02.18.2017

Sarah Jane Tribble In response to outrage from patients and lawmakers, Marathon Pharmaceuticals has delayed the launch of an $89,000 drug for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The company had announced the annual list price for Emflaza, which is a steroid, after the Food and Drug Administration approved the drug Thursday. Emflaza is approved as an orphan drug, which means it is intended to treat a rare disease. Duchenne is an inherited disorder that causes muscles to become weak. There is no cure for the condition, which mainly affects boys, but some drugs, including Emflaza, are used to lessen symptoms. For years, many American patients have imported deflazacort, the generic version of Emflaza, for about $1,200 a year. But because the medicine wasn't approved in the U.S., the cost of the medicine wasn't typically covered by insurers. That contrast in price between became a flash point Monday as Sen. Bernie Sanders, I-Vt., and Rep. Elijah Cummings, D-Md., sent a letter to Marathon on Monday morning demanding answers about the $89,000 price for a drug that isn't new. It has been used routinely by Duchenne patients in the U.S. since at least 2005. "We believe Marathon is abusing our nation's 'orphan drug' program, which grants companies seven years of market exclusivity to encourage research into new treatments for rare diseases — not to provide companies like Marathon with lucrative market exclusivity rights for drugs that have been available for decades," Sanders and Cummings wrote. Marathon said FDA approval would help more patients get the drug. © 2017 npr

Keyword: Movement Disorders
Link ID: 23234 - Posted: 02.15.2017

By Amitha Kalaichandran, When pain researcher Diane Gromala recounts how she started in the field of virtual reality, she seems reflective. She had been researching virtual reality for pain since the early 1990s, but her shift to focusing on how virtual reality could be used for chronic pain management began in 1999, when her own chronic pain became worse. Prior to that, her focus was on VR as entertainment. Gromala, 56, was diagnosed with chronic pain in 1984, but the left-sided pain that extended from her lower stomach to her left leg worsened over the next 15 years. "Taking care of my chronic pain became a full-time job. So at some point I had to make a choice — either stop working or charge full force ahead by making it a motivation for my research. You can guess what I chose," she said. Diane Gromala Pain researcher Diane Gromala found that taking care of her own chronic pain became 'a full-time job.' (Pain studies lab at Simon Fraser University) Now she's finding that immersive VR technology may offer another option for chronic pain, which affects at least one in five Canadians, according to a 2011 University of Alberta study. "We know that there is some evidence supporting immersive VR for acute pain, so it's reasonable to look into how it could help patients that suffer from chronic pain." Gromala has a PhD in human computer interaction and holds the Canada Research Chair in Computational Technologies for Transforming Pain. She also directs the pain studies lab and the Chronic Pain Research Institute at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, B.C. ©2017 CBC/Radio-Canada.

Keyword: Pain & Touch; Vision
Link ID: 23232 - Posted: 02.15.2017

By GINA KOLATA Dr. James Weinstein, a back pain specialist and chief executive of Dartmouth-Hitchcock Health System, has some advice for most people with lower back pain: Take two aspirin and don’t call me in the morning. On Monday, the American College of Physicians published updated guidelines that say much the same. In making the new recommendations for the treatment of most people with lower back pain, the group is bucking what many doctors do and changing its previous guidelines, which called for medication as first-line therapy. Dr. Nitin Damle, president of the group’s board of regents and a practicing internist, said pills, even over-the-counter pain relievers and anti-inflammatories, should not be the first choice. “We need to look at therapies that are nonpharmacological first,” he said. “That is a change.” The recommendations come as the United States is struggling with an epidemic of opioid addiction that often begins with a simple prescription for ailments like back pain. In recent years, a number of states have enacted measures aimed at curbing prescription painkillers. The problem has also led many doctors around the country to reassess prescribing practices. The group did not address surgery. Its focus was on noninvasive treatment.The new guidelines said that doctors should avoid prescribing opioid painkillers for relief of back pain and suggested that before patients try anti-inflammatories or muscle relaxants, they should try alternative therapies like exercise, acupuncture, massage therapy or yoga. Doctors should reassure their patients that they will get better no matter what treatment they try, the group said. The guidelines also said that steroid injections were not helpful, and neither was acetaminophen, like Tylenol, although other over-the-counter pain relievers like aspirin, naproxen or ibuprofen could provide some relief. © 2017 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Pain & Touch
Link ID: 23231 - Posted: 02.15.2017

By Abigail Zuger, M.D. It was in 2011 that the Centers for Disease Control first drew public attention to the ongoing nationwide opioid crisis. Much earnest commentary has explored the roots of this new killer epidemic since then, focusing on the broad highway between heroin and pain pills, and the online pharmacies, pill mills, and bad-apple doctors who fueled the two-way traffic and enabled catastrophe. Forgive me for rolling my eyes. Anyone with a prescription pad and a shred of common sense saw this whole thing coming down the pike decades ago, a speeding 18-wheeler, tires squealing, no brakes. Furthermore, it has long been clear that while the bad medical apples certainly did their share of damage, there is not a health policy guru or medical school dean in the country whose sins of omission and commission are not also partly responsible. Call it an epidemic of unconscious collusion or, as Dr. Anna Lembke bluntly states, a nation’s doctors “trapped in a system gone mad.” In less than 200 pages, this may be the most important medical book of the decade for finally getting the story of the opioid epidemic exactly right. As far as I am concerned, “Drug Dealer, M.D.,” in less than 200 unassuming, readable, and carefully referenced pages, may be the most important medical book of the decade for finally getting the story of this epidemic exactly right. And it’s not the medical bad apples Lembke is talking about in her title — it’s every doctor in the country. Copyright 2017 Undark

Keyword: Drug Abuse; Pain & Touch
Link ID: 23218 - Posted: 02.13.2017

Sarah Boseley Health editor Low back and neck pain is an increasingly widespread and expensive condition worldwide, costing the US alone $88bn a year – the third highest bill for any health condition – despite evidence most treatments do not work. Millions of people worldwide suffer from low back and neck pain, most of it unexplained, although some professionals think it may be worsened by sitting at desks all day, carrying bags and general bad posture. Episodes of acute pain are very common, but experts say that medical investigations only make things worse and the best cure is often to take painkillers, exercise gently and wait for the pain to pass. The rising bill for treatment in the US has been uncovered in a new study by the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washington, which looked at public and private spending on all diseases in 2013. Diabetes was in first place on $101.4bn and heart disease was second with $88.1bn. But neck and lower back pain treatment costs were close behind, at $87.6bn. The team split cancer into 29 separate conditions, which meant that none of them made the top 20, although combined the costs of treatment came to $115bn. The most remarkable thing, said Joseph Dieleman, lead author of the paper published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, was the increase in treatment costs for lower back and neck pain, running at 6.5% a year against 3.5% overall. “In absolute terms, there was an increase from $30bn in 1996 to $88bn in 2013,” he told the Guardian. © 2017 Guardian News and Media Limited

Keyword: Pain & Touch
Link ID: 23214 - Posted: 02.11.2017

Katherine Bourzac Kristopher Boesen, who broke his neck in a car accident, regained the ability to move his arms and hands after his spinal cord was injected with stem cells. Two years after having a stroke at 31, Sonia Olea Coontz remained partially paralysed on her right side. She could barely move her arm, had slurred speech and needed a wheelchair to get around. In 2013, Coontz enrolled in a small clinical trial. The day after a doctor injected stem cells around the site of her stroke, she was able to lift her arm up over her head and speak clearly. Now she no longer uses a wheelchair and, at 36, is pregnant with her first child. Coontz is one of stem-cell therapy's “miracle patients”, says Gary Steinberg, chair of neurosurgery at Stanford School of Medicine in California, and Coontz's doctor. Conventional wisdom said that her response was impossible: the neural circuits damaged by the stroke were dead. Most neuroscientists believed that the window for functional recovery extends to only six months after the injury. Stem-cell therapies have shown great promise in the repair of brain and spinal injuries in animals. But animal models often behave differently from humans — nervous-system injuries in rats, for example, heal more readily than they do in people. Clinical trial results have been mixed. Interesting signals from small trials have faded away in larger ones. There are plenty of unknowns: which stem cells are the right ones to use, what the cells are doing when they work and how soon after an injury they can be used. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited,

Keyword: Regeneration; Stem Cells
Link ID: 23210 - Posted: 02.10.2017

Swedish researchers say a simple blood test is effective at differentiating symptoms of Parkinson's disease from similar disorders, but it isn't ready for clinical use. In its early stages, neurologists say Parkinson's is difficult to distinguish from rarer disorders, called atypical parkinsonian disorders. They have overlapping symptoms that tend to worsen more quickly and are more likely to lead to death. Researchers are on the hunt for biomarkers to help diagnosis these disorders. One potential biomarker, a nerve protein that can be detected when nerve cells die, is found in higher concentrations in spinal fluid collected by lumbar puncture. Now medical scientists have also found the protein in less invasive blood tests. For the study published in Wednesday's online issue of the journal Neurology, Dr. Oskar Hansson of Sweden's Lund University and his team examined 504 people in three groups. Two of the groups, in England and Sweden, included healthy people and those who had been living with one of the disorders for an average of four to six years. The third group of 109 patients had the diseases for three years or less. "The results of the present study strongly indicate that NfL when measured in blood can be used to distinguish between patients with Parkinson's disease and patients with progressive supranuclear palsy multiple system atrophy and corticobasal degeneration with high diagnostic accuracy," the study's authors said. ©2017 CBC/Radio-Canada.

Keyword: Parkinsons
Link ID: 23206 - Posted: 02.09.2017

By Anil Ananthaswamy Next time a nurse sticks a needle into your arm, don’t look away: it’ll be less painful. A new study shows that we feel less pain when we are looking at our body – and that this effect works with virtual reality too. In 2009, Patrick Haggard and Matthew Longo of University College London showed that looking at your own body has an analgesic effect. The researchers shone infrared laser light on the skin of volunteers. Those who were looking at their body rather than at a neutral object said that they felt less pain. Scalp electrodes revealed that this analgesic effect was linked to weaker activity in parts of the brain’s cortex that process pain – although why this happens is unclear. Since then, two different teams have tested the effect using the rubber hand illusion – in which a rubber hand is placed next to a person’s real hand, which is hidden from view. Stroking both the real and rubber hands with paint brushes convinces them that the rubber hand is their own. Extending this illusion, the teams wanted to know: can looking at a rubber hand that feels like one’s own alleviate pain in your real hand? The studies were contradictory: one study showed an analgesic effect, but the other did not. Maria Sanchez-Vives at the University of Barcelona, Spain, and her colleagues argue that differences in the position of the rubber hand and real hand may have led to the differing results. To test the effect of the rubber hand’s position, her team used virtual reality to induce the illusion. Instead of seeing a real rubber hand, participants were shown one via a VR headset instead. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Keyword: Pain & Touch
Link ID: 23198 - Posted: 02.08.2017

Rae Ellen Bichell By the time Kay Schwister got her diagnosis last summer, she couldn't talk anymore. But she could still scowl, and scowl she did. After weeks of decline and no clue what was causing it, doctors had told Schwister — a 53-year-old vocational rehab counselor and mother of two from Chicago — that she had an incurable disease called Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, or CJD. The disease was shrinking Kay's brain, and riddling it with holes. She would likely only live a few more weeks, the doctors said. It was a diagnosis that no one could ever want. But the fact that Schwister was able to get a firm diagnosis while still alive is a relatively new development that represents a step forward in understanding a group of devastating neurological disorders. And, some biochemists say, it could lead to better ways of diagnosing brain diseases that are much more common, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. For Kay Schwister it all started in the spring of 2016, when she started getting headaches and feeling dizzy all the time. Aging, she told herself, just didn't feel very good. Over the next few weeks, she got steadily worse. "She got to the point where she was so nauseous and so dizzy that she stopped driving and actually stopped working," says her husband, Tim Schwister. By the time Kay entered the emergency room last June her speech had changed. She was enunciating things in a strange way, and finishing each sentence on a really high note. Doctors drew blood and spinal fluid and tested it for things like multiple sclerosis and mercury poisoning. Those tests came back negative. Soon, Kay couldn't talk or walk. © 2017 npr

Keyword: Prions
Link ID: 23191 - Posted: 02.06.2017

Sara Constantino Certain multisensory conditions can alter the experience of bodily ownership. For instance, in the rubber hand illusion, simultaneous visual and haptic inputs lead to the adoption of sensations applied to an artificial limb as one's own. Understanding body ownership, and its malleability, has implications for the development of prosthetics. In a recent paper, Kelly Collins and colleagues at the University of Washington and Karolinska Institute elicited the illusion of ownership of an artificial hand in two epilepsy patients with embedded electrodes through the direct electrical stimulation of the hand area in somatosensory cortex (SI) applied in synchrony with visible touches to a rubber hand. When stimulation was asynchronous or administered to a different SI area, feelings of ownership were no longer induced, stressing the importance of temporal and spatial congruence. They also found that the details of the visual signal (for example, type of touch) affected the sensation. This method extends previous studies by eliciting ownership without stimulation of the peripheral nervous system, which is damaged in patients with spinal cord or nerve lesions. Human–technology mixtures have a long history, with the first known prosthesis, a wooden toe, dating as far back as 950 bc. Today, recent materials, electronics and neuroscience advances are enabling the development of prosthetic limbs that both look and feel real. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited,

Keyword: Pain & Touch
Link ID: 23168 - Posted: 01.31.2017

By Roni Caryn Rabin Neuromas of the foot, a painful condition caused by an inflamed nerve in the ball of the foot, can be effectively treated at home with daily massage and stretches and over-the-counter painkillers, said Dr. Jacqueline Sutera, a doctor of podiatric medicine and surgery. “Of all the patients with neuromas I see in the office, I would say that ultimately only two of 10 might need surgery,” said Dr. Sutera, who practices in New York City and New Jersey. Neuromas of the foot, also known as Morton's neuromas, typically cause sharp, stabbing pain in the second, third and fourth toes. The goal of massaging and stretching is to open up the space between the bones — the metatarsals — in the ball of the foot and increase circulation, which can help reduce the pain and inflammation. Focus on the ball of the foot, not the toes, since the pain in the toes is referred pain from the ball of the foot. Dr. Sutera recommends placing the thumbs at the top of the foot and the other fingers on the bottom of the foot — or vice versa — and pressing and massaging the bones of the ball of the foot, “creating pressure on both sides, top and bottom.” Follow massages with stretches, using your hands to “grab your forefoot and pull it apart so you’re stretching the spaces between the metatarsals in the ball of the foot.” Massages and stretches are most effective at the end of the day, she said, ideally after a hot shower, bath or other heat application. After the massage and stretching, the area should be iced. © 2017 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Pain & Touch
Link ID: 23161 - Posted: 01.28.2017

By GRETCHEN REYNOLDS When people get up and move, even a little, they tend to be happier than when they are still, according to an interesting new study that used cellphone data to track activities and moods. In general, the researchers found, people who move are more content than people who sit. There already is considerable evidence that physical activity is linked to psychological health. Epidemiological studies have found, for example, that people who exercise or otherwise are active typically are less prone to depression and anxiety than sedentary people. But many of these studies focused only on negative moods. They often also relied on people recalling how they had felt and how much they had moved or sat in the previous week or month, with little objective data to support these recollections. For the new study, which was published this month in PLoS One, researchers at the University of Cambridge in England decided to try a different approach. They would look, they decided, at correlations between movement and happiness, that most positive of emotions. In addition, they would look at what people reported about their activity and compare it with objective measures of movement. To accomplish these goals, they first developed a special app for Android phones. Available free on the Google app store and ultimately downloaded by more than 10,000 men and women, it was advertised as helping people to understand how lifestyle choices, such as physical activity, might affect people’s moods. (The app, which is no longer available for download, opened with a permission form explaining to people that the data they entered would be used for academic research.) The app randomly sent requests to people throughout the day, asking them to enter an estimation of their current mood by answering questions and also using grids in which they would place a dot showing whether they felt more stressed or relaxed, depressed or excited, and so on. © 2017 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Depression; Obesity
Link ID: 23147 - Posted: 01.26.2017