Chapter 16. None

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By Sam Wong Here’s looking at you, squid. Cock-eyed squid have one huge, bulging eye and another normal-sized eye, but the reason has remained a mystery. Now we have an answer. Kate Thomas of Duke University in North Carolina studied 161 videos of the creatures collected over 26 years by remotely operated submarines in Monterey Bay, California. The findings provide the first behavioural evidence that the two eyes are adapted to look in different directions. The large one points upwards to spot prey silhouetted against the sky. The smaller one points downwards to spot bioluminescent organisms against the darkness below. The squid, from the histioteuthid family, live at depths of 200 to 1000 metres, where little light penetrates. The videos show that the squid normally swims with its tail end pointing upwards, but tilted so the large eye is consistently oriented towards the sky. Based on measurements of the eyes and the light levels they would be exposed to, Thomas and her colleagues calculated that having a big upward-pointing eye greatly improves visual perception, while a downward-pointing eye would gain little from being large. “That gives you the context for how this trait might have evolved,” says Thomas. Some of the squid’s prey, such as lanternfish and shrimp, have luminescent undersides so they are camouflaged against the sunlight when seen from below. Yellow pigmentation in the lens of the squid’s large eye may help it distinguish between sunlight and bioluminescence. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Keyword: Vision; Evolution
Link ID: 23222 - Posted: 02.14.2017

By JANE E. BRODY “Bariatric surgery is probably the most effective intervention we have in health care,” says Laurie K. Twells, a clinical epidemiologist at Memorial University of Newfoundland. She bases this bold claim on her experience with seriously obese patients and a detailed analysis of the best studies yet done showing weight-loss surgery’s ability to reverse the often devastating effects of being extremely overweight on health and quality of life. “I haven’t come across a patient yet who wouldn’t recommend it,” Dr. Twells said in an interview. “Most say they wish they’d done it 10 years sooner.” She explained that the overwhelming majority of patients who undergo bariatric surgery have spent many years trying — and failing — to lose weight and keep it off. And the reason is not a lack of willpower. “These patients have lost hundreds of pounds over and over again,” Dr. Twells said. “The weight that it takes them one year to lose is typically back in two months,” often because a body with longstanding obesity defends itself against weight loss by drastically reducing its metabolic rate, an effect not seen after bariatric surgery, which permanently changes the contours of the digestive tract. In reviewing studies that followed patients for five to 25 years after weight-loss surgery, Dr. Twells and colleagues found major long-lasting benefits to the patients’ health and quality of life. Matched with comparable patients who did not have surgery, those who did fared much better physically, emotionally and socially. They rated themselves as healthier and were less likely to report problems with mobility, pain, daily activities, social interactions and feelings of depression and anxiety, among other factors that can compromise well-being. © 2017 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Obesity
Link ID: 23219 - Posted: 02.13.2017

By KENNETH CHANG Sir Peter Mansfield, who shared a Nobel Prize for discoveries that underpinned the invention of magnetic resonance imaging, the method of peering inside the human body that revolutionized medicine, died on Wednesday. He was 83. The University of Nottingham in England, where Dr. Mansfield had been a professor of physics, announced his death but not did say where he died. He lived in England. Magnetic resonance imaging, or M.R.I., has enabled doctors to diagnose and examine injuries to ligaments, bones and organs without cutting open the body or risking the radiation dangers of X-rays. “It’s hugely important,” said Charles P. Slichter, an emeritus physics professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “It’s such an all-pervasive technique.” Dr. Mansfield worked in his laboratory as a postdoctoral researcher in the 1960s. Dr. Mansfield was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2003, along with Paul C. Lauterbur, a professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The two had worked independent of each other in studying magnetic resonance imaging. Their research proceeded from an understanding that the nuclei of most atoms act as tiny magnets that line up when placed in a magnetic field. If the field is set at a specific strength, the atoms can absorb and emit radio waves. Scientists initially used the technique, called nuclear magnetic resonance, or N.M.R., to study atoms and molecules, deducing properties from the emitted waves. In his early research, Dr. Mansfield developed N.M.R. techniques to study crystals. Later, in 1972, as he worked to refine and sharpen N.M.R. data, he had a conversation with two colleagues about what applications such advances might lead to. He soon realized that if an object were placed in a nonuniform magnetic field — one that is stronger at one end than the other — scientists might be able to piece together a three-dimensional image of its atomic structure. © 2017 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Brain imaging
Link ID: 23217 - Posted: 02.13.2017

By KATHARINE Q. SEELYE and ABBY GOODNOUGH MANCHESTER, N.H. — Chad Diaz began using heroin when he was 12. Now 36 and newly covered by Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act, he is on Suboxone, a substitute opioid that eases withdrawal symptoms and cravings, and he is slowly pulling himself together. “This is the best my life has gone in many, many years,” Mr. Diaz, a big man wearing camouflage, said as he sat in a community health center here. If Congress and President Trump succeed in dismantling the Affordable Care Act, he will have no insurance to pay for his medication or counseling, and he fears he will slide back to heroin. “If this gets taken from me, it’s right back to Square 1,” he said. “And that’s not a good place. I’m scary when I’m using. I don’t care who I hurt.” As the debate over the fate of the health law intensifies, proponents have focused on the lifesaving care it has brought to people with cancer, diabetes and other physical illnesses. But the law has also had a profound, though perhaps less heralded, effect on mental health and addiction treatment, vastly expanding access to those services by designating them as “essential benefits” that must be covered through the A.C.A. marketplaces and expanded Medicaid. The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, a left-leaning research group, calculates that 2.8 million people with substance use disorders, including 220,000 with opioid disorders, have coverage under the A.C.A. As the opioid epidemic continues to devastate communities nationwide, public health officials say the law has begun to make a critical difference in their ability to treat and rehabilitate people. © 2017 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Drug Abuse
Link ID: 23215 - Posted: 02.11.2017

Sarah Boseley Health editor Low back and neck pain is an increasingly widespread and expensive condition worldwide, costing the US alone $88bn a year – the third highest bill for any health condition – despite evidence most treatments do not work. Millions of people worldwide suffer from low back and neck pain, most of it unexplained, although some professionals think it may be worsened by sitting at desks all day, carrying bags and general bad posture. Episodes of acute pain are very common, but experts say that medical investigations only make things worse and the best cure is often to take painkillers, exercise gently and wait for the pain to pass. The rising bill for treatment in the US has been uncovered in a new study by the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washington, which looked at public and private spending on all diseases in 2013. Diabetes was in first place on $101.4bn and heart disease was second with $88.1bn. But neck and lower back pain treatment costs were close behind, at $87.6bn. The team split cancer into 29 separate conditions, which meant that none of them made the top 20, although combined the costs of treatment came to $115bn. The most remarkable thing, said Joseph Dieleman, lead author of the paper published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, was the increase in treatment costs for lower back and neck pain, running at 6.5% a year against 3.5% overall. “In absolute terms, there was an increase from $30bn in 1996 to $88bn in 2013,” he told the Guardian. © 2017 Guardian News and Media Limited

Keyword: Pain & Touch
Link ID: 23214 - Posted: 02.11.2017

By STEPH YIN If you’re reading this at home, pause and put on a song you can’t resist dancing to. Go on, bop your head to the beat. Let yourself wiggle a bit. Throw in some arms and legs. If you’re reading this at work, maybe imagine these things at your desk. As you’re dancing, pay attention to where and how you’re moving. How much are you swaying your hips? Are your legs moving together or independently of each other? How vigorously are you moving your torso? You should note those movements, because very specific patterns may make some people appear to be better dancers than others. That’s the conclusion of a study published on Thursday in Scientific Reports, in which researchers asked 200 people to rate 39 female dancers. A few features stood out as contributing to higher-quality dance: big hip swings, and the right and left limbs moving independently of one another (which the researchers describe as asymmetric arm and thigh movements). The researchers speculate that those moves serve two purposes for heterosexual women. “One is, they’re showing off their reproductive quality, perhaps their hormonal status, to males,” said Nick Neave, an associate professor of psychology at Northumbria University in England and an author of the paper. “Another is, they’re showing off how good they are to female rivals.” In 2011, the same researchers reported that women preferred certain dance moves by men, especially exaggerated movements in the upper body. In other studies, Dr. Neave and his colleagues have found links between male dance attractiveness and risk-taking, as well as handgrip strength, a marker for overall body strength. “We know that dance moves are signaling strength and vigor in males,” Dr. Neave said. “Now we’re beginning to do the same research with females.” In the study, his team asked 39 female university students in Britain to dance alone to a drum beat. The researchers used a motion-capture system to track the women’s moves. They animated each dancer as an avatar to try to make sure that only the dance movements — and no other physical features — would affect ratings. Then they recruited 57 men and 143 women to watch 15-second clips of the avatars and rate them each on a numeric scale. © 2017 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Sexual Behavior; Evolution
Link ID: 23212 - Posted: 02.10.2017

By Tamar Haspel In his new book “The Case Against Sugar,” journalist Gary Taubes makes, as you might easily guess, a spirited case against sugar. His argument is based on the straightforward idea that sugar contributes to obesity and disease well beyond its calorie content, because it affects human metabolism in a way that encourages fat storage. In his new book, the science journalist Gary Taubes takes a hard-nosed look at sugar — and further advances the idea that not all calories are created equal. But there are competing theories of obesity. Who’s right? The debate is often framed as being over the nature of calories themselves, with scientists holding that calories are units of energy — each one no different than the other. Sugar is a carbohydrate, and the body converts carbs to glucose which is then absorbed into the bloodstream. This, in turn, triggers the pancreas to release insulin, the hormone that enables the body to use energy or store it as fat. If a person doesn’t eat many carbohydrates, the pancreas doesn’t release as much insulin, and less fat is stored, forcing the body’s metabolism to increase and burn off that energy. In practical terms, the theory goes, such a person will have an easier time losing weight — or avoiding gaining it. This hypothesis is called, appropriately, the carbohydrate/insulin, or C/I, model, and it is the basis for any number of popular low-carb diets, including Atkins, the Paleo diet, and others. It is also a “minority position” among food scientists, Taubes concedes, and many mainstream nutrition authorities reject it. Copyright 2017 Undark

Keyword: Obesity
Link ID: 23208 - Posted: 02.09.2017

By Meredith Wadman A pair of Boston University (BU) brain researchers is pushing back against demands by the National Hockey League (NHL) that they release data, brain pathology slides, and interview records of former NHL players and their families. The scientists accumulated the records during their research on chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative disease that has been linked to repetitive head trauma. In affidavits unsealed yesterday in a class action lawsuit brought against the league by former players, BU neuroscientists Robert Stern and Ann McKee argued that giving the league the records would compromise both their ongoing research and the privacy of the players and families involved. The affidavits were first reported on yesterday by Rick Westhead of the Canadian sports network TSN. The NHL first subpoenaed the documents in September 2015. Stern and McKee, a neuropsychologist and a neuropathologist, respectively, at BU’s Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Center, have studied the brains of former professional athletes, including hockey players, and are currently using MRI imaging to study scores of living National Football League and college football players in a large study funded by the National Institutes of Health. They say that assurances that players’ privacy will be protected are essential for the success of that $16 million study. In the current litigation, the NHL’s medical expert, Rudy Castellani, asked the BU scientists for copies of gross pathology photographs, all brain slides, and clinical data of former NHL players in order to “verify the accuracy of the reports, evaluate for other pathological processes that may be significant, and conduct a full, independent neuropathological analysis of the cases.” (The scientists interviewed the former NHL players in some cases, and, in others, their surviving family members.) © 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Keyword: Brain Injury/Concussion
Link ID: 23207 - Posted: 02.09.2017

Swedish researchers say a simple blood test is effective at differentiating symptoms of Parkinson's disease from similar disorders, but it isn't ready for clinical use. In its early stages, neurologists say Parkinson's is difficult to distinguish from rarer disorders, called atypical parkinsonian disorders. They have overlapping symptoms that tend to worsen more quickly and are more likely to lead to death. Researchers are on the hunt for biomarkers to help diagnosis these disorders. One potential biomarker, a nerve protein that can be detected when nerve cells die, is found in higher concentrations in spinal fluid collected by lumbar puncture. Now medical scientists have also found the protein in less invasive blood tests. For the study published in Wednesday's online issue of the journal Neurology, Dr. Oskar Hansson of Sweden's Lund University and his team examined 504 people in three groups. Two of the groups, in England and Sweden, included healthy people and those who had been living with one of the disorders for an average of four to six years. The third group of 109 patients had the diseases for three years or less. "The results of the present study strongly indicate that NfL when measured in blood can be used to distinguish between patients with Parkinson's disease and patients with progressive supranuclear palsy multiple system atrophy and corticobasal degeneration with high diagnostic accuracy," the study's authors said. ©2017 CBC/Radio-Canada.

Keyword: Parkinsons
Link ID: 23206 - Posted: 02.09.2017

In a study of mice and monkeys, National Institutes of Health funded researchers showed that they could prevent and reverse some of the brain injury caused by the toxic form of a protein called tau. The results, published in Science Translational Medicine, suggest that the study of compounds, called tau antisense oligonucleotides, that are genetically engineered to block a cell’s assembly line production of tau, might be pursued as an effective treatment for a variety of disorders. Cells throughout the body normally manufacture tau proteins. In several disorders, toxic forms of tau clump together inside dying brain cells and form neurofibrillary tangles, including Alzheimer’s disease, tau-associated frontotemporal dementia, chronic traumatic encephalopathy and progressive supranuclear palsy. Currently there are no effective treatments for combating toxic tau. "This compound may literally help untangle the brain damage caused by tau,” said Timothy Miller, M.D., Ph.D., the David Clayson Professor of Neurology at Washington University, St. Louis, and the study's senior author. Antisense oligonucleotides are short sequences of DNA or RNA programmed to turn genes on or off. Led by Sarah L. DeVos, a graduate student in Dr. Miller’s lab, the researchers tested sequences designed to turn tau genes off in mice that are genetically engineered to produce abnormally high levels of a mutant form of the human protein. Tau clusters begin to appear in the brains of 6-month-old mice and accumulate with age. The mice develop neurologic problems and die earlier than control mice.

Keyword: Alzheimers
Link ID: 23205 - Posted: 02.09.2017

Scientists who spent years listening to the communication calls of one of our closest ape relatives say their eavesdropping has shed light on the origin of human language. Dr Adriano Reis e Lameira from Durham University recorded and analysed almost 5,000 orangutan "kiss squeaks". He found that the animals combined these purse-lipped, "consonant-like" calls to convey different messages. This could be a glimpse of how our ancestors formed the earliest words. The findings are published in the journal Nature Human Behaviour. "Human language is extraordinarily advanced and complex - we can pretty much transmit any information we want into sound," said Dr Reis e Lameira. "So we tend to think that maybe words evolved from some rudimentary precursor to transmit more complex messages. "We were basically using the orangutan vocal behaviour as a time machine - back to a time when our ancestors were using what would become [those precursors] of consonants and vowels." The team studied kiss squeaks in particular because, like many consonants - the /t/, /p/, /k/ sounds - they depend on the action of the lips, tongue and jaw rather than the voice. "Kiss squeaks do not involve vocal fold action, so they're acoustically and articulatory consonant-like," explained Dr Reis e Lameira. In comparison to research into vowel-like primate calls, the scientists explained, the study of consonants in the evolution of language has been more difficult. But as Prof Serge Wich from Liverpool John Moores University, a lead author in the study, said, they are crucial "building blocks" in the evolution of language. "Most human languages have a lot more consonants than vowels," said Prof Wich. "And if we have more building blocks, we have more combinations." © 2017 BBC.

Keyword: Language; Evolution
Link ID: 23204 - Posted: 02.09.2017

by Linda Rodriguez McRobbie If you ask Jill Price to remember any day of her life, she can come up with an answer in a heartbeat. What was she doing on 29 August 1980? “It was a Friday, I went to Palm Springs with my friends, twins, Nina and Michelle, and their family for Labour Day weekend,” she says. “And before we went to Palm Springs, we went to get them bikini waxes. They were screaming through the whole thing.” Price was 14 years and eight months old. What about the third time she drove a car? “The third time I drove a car was January 10 1981. Saturday. Teen Auto. That’s where we used to get our driving lessons from.” She was 15 years and two weeks old. The first time she heard the Rick Springfield song Jessie’s Girl? “March 7 1981.” She was driving in a car with her mother, who was yelling at her. She was 16 years and two months old. Price was born on 30 December 1965 in New York City. Her first clear memories start from around the age of 18 months. Back then, she lived with her parents in an apartment across the street from Roosevelt Hospital in Midtown Manhattan. She remembers the screaming ambulances and traffic, how she used to love climbing on the living room couch and staring out of the window down 9th Avenue. When she was five years and three months old, her family – her father, a talent agent with William Morris who counted Ray Charles among his clients; her mother, a former variety show dancer, and her baby brother – moved to South Orange, New Jersey. They lived in a three-storey, red brick colonial house with a big backyard and huge trees, the kind of place people left the city for. Jill loved it.

Keyword: Learning & Memory
Link ID: 23201 - Posted: 02.08.2017

Squid and their cephalopod brethren have been the inspiration for many a science fiction creature. Their slippery appendages, huge proportions, and inking abilities can be downright shudder-inducing. (See: Arrival.) But you should probably be more concerned by the cephalopod’s huge brain—which not only helps it solve tricky puzzles, but also lets it converse in its own sign language. Right now, you’re probably imagining twisted tentacles spelling out creepy cephalopod communiqués. But it’s not that: Certain kinds of squid send messages by manipulating the color of their skin. “Their body patterning is fantastic, fabulous,” says Chuan-Chin Chiao, a neuroscientist at National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan. They can display bands, or stripes, or turn completely dark or light. And Chiao is trying to crack their code. Chiao got his inspiration from physiologist B. B. Boycott, who in the 1960s showed that the cuttlefish brain was the control center for changing skin color. Boycott copied his technique from neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield, who treated epilepsy patients by burning out the misbehaving bits of their brains. While their grey matter was exposed for surgery, Penfield also applied a gentle current through the electrodes in his patients’ brains. You know, just to see what would happen. A zap in one spot above the ears caused a tingle in the left hand. In another spot, tingles in the leg. And so Penfield discovered that the sensory cortex is a homunculus, with specific brain areas mapping onto different parts of your body. Over time, scientists tried the electrical stimulation technique on all kinds of animals—including Boycott’s cuttlefish.

Keyword: Animal Communication
Link ID: 23199 - Posted: 02.08.2017

By Anil Ananthaswamy Next time a nurse sticks a needle into your arm, don’t look away: it’ll be less painful. A new study shows that we feel less pain when we are looking at our body – and that this effect works with virtual reality too. In 2009, Patrick Haggard and Matthew Longo of University College London showed that looking at your own body has an analgesic effect. The researchers shone infrared laser light on the skin of volunteers. Those who were looking at their body rather than at a neutral object said that they felt less pain. Scalp electrodes revealed that this analgesic effect was linked to weaker activity in parts of the brain’s cortex that process pain – although why this happens is unclear. Since then, two different teams have tested the effect using the rubber hand illusion – in which a rubber hand is placed next to a person’s real hand, which is hidden from view. Stroking both the real and rubber hands with paint brushes convinces them that the rubber hand is their own. Extending this illusion, the teams wanted to know: can looking at a rubber hand that feels like one’s own alleviate pain in your real hand? The studies were contradictory: one study showed an analgesic effect, but the other did not. Maria Sanchez-Vives at the University of Barcelona, Spain, and her colleagues argue that differences in the position of the rubber hand and real hand may have led to the differing results. To test the effect of the rubber hand’s position, her team used virtual reality to induce the illusion. Instead of seeing a real rubber hand, participants were shown one via a VR headset instead. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Keyword: Pain & Touch
Link ID: 23198 - Posted: 02.08.2017

By Lenny Bernstein Forty million American adults have lost some hearing because of noise, and half of them suffered the damage outside the workplace, from everyday exposure to leaf blowers, sirens, rock concerts and other loud sounds, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported Tuesday. A quarter of people ages 20 to 69 were suffering some hearing deficits, the CDC reported in its Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, even though the vast majority of the people in the study claimed to have good or excellent hearing. The researchers found that 24 percent of adults had “audiometric notches” — a deterioration in the softest sound a person can hear — in one or both ears. The data came from 3,583 people who had undergone hearing tests and reported the results in the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The review's more surprising finding — which the CDC had not previously studied — was that 53 percent of those people said they had no regular exposure to loud noise at work. That means the hearing loss was caused by other environmental factors, including listening to music through headphones with the volume turned up too high. “Noise is damaging hearing before anyone notices or diagnoses it,” said Anne Schuchat, the CDC's acting director. “Because of that, the start of hearing loss is underrecognized.” The study revealed that 19 percent of people between the ages of 20 and 29 had some hearing loss, a finding that Schuchat called alarming. © 1996-2017 The Washington Post

Keyword: Hearing
Link ID: 23197 - Posted: 02.08.2017

By JANE E. BRODY Dizziness is not a disease but rather a symptom that can result from a huge variety of underlying disorders or, in some cases, no disorder at all. Readily determining its cause and how best to treat it — or whether to let it resolve on its own — can depend on how well patients are able to describe exactly how they feel during a dizziness episode and the circumstances under which it usually occurs. For example, I recently experienced a rather frightening attack of dizziness, accompanied by nausea, at a food and beverage tasting event where I ate much more than I usually do. Suddenly feeling that I might faint at any moment, I lay down on a concrete balcony for about 10 minutes until the disconcerting sensations passed, after which I felt completely normal. The next morning I checked the internet for my symptom — dizziness after eating — and discovered the condition had a name: Postprandial hypotension, a sudden drop in blood pressure when too much blood is diverted to the digestive tract, leaving the brain relatively deprived. The condition most often affects older adults who may have an associated disorder like diabetes, hypertension or Parkinson’s disease that impedes the body’s ability to maintain a normal blood pressure. Fortunately, I am thus far spared any disorder linked to this symptom, but I’m now careful to avoid overeating lest it happen again. “An essential problem is that almost every disease can cause dizziness,” say two medical experts who wrote a comprehensive new book, “Dizziness: Why You Feel Dizzy and What Will Help You Feel Better.” Although the vast majority of patients seen at dizziness clinics do not have a serious health problem, the authors, Dr. Gregory T. Whitman and Dr. Robert W. Baloh, emphasize that doctors must always “be on the alert for a serious disease presenting as ‘dizziness,’” like “stroke, transient ischemic attacks, multiple sclerosis and brain tumors.” © 2017 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Hearing
Link ID: 23196 - Posted: 02.07.2017

By James Gallagher Health and science reporter, BBC News website Deaf mice have been able to hear a tiny whisper after being given a "landmark" gene therapy by US scientists. They say restoring near-normal hearing in the animals paves the way for similar treatments for people "in the near future". Studies, published in Nature Biotechnology, corrected errors that led to the sound-sensing hairs in the ear becoming defective. The researchers used a synthetic virus to nip in and correct the defect. "It's unprecedented, this is the first time we've seen this level of hearing restoration," said researcher Dr Jeffrey Holt, from Boston Children's Hospital. Hair defect About half of all forms of deafness are due to an error in the instructions for life - DNA. In the experiments at Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, the mice had a genetic disorder called Usher syndrome. It means there are inaccurate instructions for building microscopic hairs inside the ear. In healthy ears, sets of outer hair cells magnify sound waves and inner hair cells then convert sounds to electrical signals that go to the brain. The hairs normally form these neat V-shaped rows. But in Usher syndrome they become disorganised - severely affecting hearing. The researchers developed a synthetic virus that was able to "infect" the ear with the correct instructions for building hair cells. © 2017 BBC.

Keyword: Hearing; Regeneration
Link ID: 23195 - Posted: 02.07.2017

By Meredith Wadman The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) today put the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) on notice that it intends to use legal tools to force the agency to restore tens of thousands of documents on animal welfare that it removed from its website on Friday. In this letter to the U.S. Department of Justice, the animal welfare organization reminded the government that under the terms of a 2009 legal settlement with HSUS, USDA had agreed to make public some of the records it has now scrubbed from its public database. HSUS, its lawyers write, “is exercising its rights under [the 2009 settlement] and intends to take further action unless USDA agrees to reconsider this bizarre reversal of the agency’s longstanding policy” of making inspection records and others publicly available. The animal organization’s letter notes that under the terms of the 2009 settlement, the two parties, HSUS and USDA, now have 30 days to settle their differences. After that, HSUS can ask the court to reopen the lawsuit. A spokesperson for USDA did not in the course of 3 hours return an email and a call requesting comment. The HSUS letter also argues that USDA’s actions violate laws governing the electronic release of data under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). One of the laws requires agencies to “make available for public inspection … [By] electronic means” all FOIA requests that it releases to anyone and that it determines are likely to be asked for again, by others. When they were public, many of USDA’s inspection reports, especially those of troubled facilities, were accessed repeatedly by a number of different users. © 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science

Keyword: Animal Rights
Link ID: 23192 - Posted: 02.07.2017

Rae Ellen Bichell By the time Kay Schwister got her diagnosis last summer, she couldn't talk anymore. But she could still scowl, and scowl she did. After weeks of decline and no clue what was causing it, doctors had told Schwister — a 53-year-old vocational rehab counselor and mother of two from Chicago — that she had an incurable disease called Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, or CJD. The disease was shrinking Kay's brain, and riddling it with holes. She would likely only live a few more weeks, the doctors said. It was a diagnosis that no one could ever want. But the fact that Schwister was able to get a firm diagnosis while still alive is a relatively new development that represents a step forward in understanding a group of devastating neurological disorders. And, some biochemists say, it could lead to better ways of diagnosing brain diseases that are much more common, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. For Kay Schwister it all started in the spring of 2016, when she started getting headaches and feeling dizzy all the time. Aging, she told herself, just didn't feel very good. Over the next few weeks, she got steadily worse. "She got to the point where she was so nauseous and so dizzy that she stopped driving and actually stopped working," says her husband, Tim Schwister. By the time Kay entered the emergency room last June her speech had changed. She was enunciating things in a strange way, and finishing each sentence on a really high note. Doctors drew blood and spinal fluid and tested it for things like multiple sclerosis and mercury poisoning. Those tests came back negative. Soon, Kay couldn't talk or walk. © 2017 npr

Keyword: Prions
Link ID: 23191 - Posted: 02.06.2017

Diana Steele Generations of gurus have exhorted, “Live in the moment!” For Lonni Sue Johnson, that’s all she can do. In 2007, viral encephalitis destroyed Johnson’s hippocampus. Without that crucial brain structure, Johnson lost most of her memories of the past and can’t form new ones. She literally lives in the present. In The Perpetual Now, science journalist Michael Lemonick describes Johnson’s world and tells the story of her life before her illness, in which she was an illustrator (she produced many New Yorker covers), private pilot and accomplished amateur violist. Johnson can’t remember biographical details of her own life, recall anything about history or remember anything new. But remarkably, she can converse expertly about making art and she creates elaborately illustrated word-search puzzles. She still plays viola with expertise and expression and, though she will never remember that she has seen it before, she can even learn new music. Neuroscientists are curious about Johnson’s brain in part because her education and expertise before her illness contrast sharply with that of the most famous amnesiac known to science, Henry Molaison. Lemonick interweaves the story of “Patient H.M.,” as he was known, with Johnson’s biography. Molaison had experienced seizures since childhood and held menial jobs until surgery in his 20s destroyed his hippo-campus. At the time, in the 1950s, Molaison’s subsequent amnesia came as a surprise, prompting a 50-year study of his brain that provided a fundamental understanding of the central role of the hippocampus in forming conscious memories. © Society for Science & the Public 2000 - 2016.

Keyword: Learning & Memory
Link ID: 23189 - Posted: 02.06.2017