Chapter 16. None
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By ANDREW HIGGINS OSLO — In a country so wary of drug abuse that it limits the sale of aspirin, Pal-Orjan Johansen, a Norwegian researcher, is pushing what would seem a doomed cause: the rehabilitation of LSD. It matters little to him that the psychedelic drug has been banned here and around the world for more than 40 years. Mr. Johansen pitches his effort not as a throwback to the hippie hedonism of the 1960s, but as a battle for human rights and good health. In fact, he also wants to manufacture MDMA and psilocybin, the active ingredients in two other prohibited substances, Ecstasy and so-called magic mushrooms. All of that might seem quixotic at best, if only Mr. Johansen and EmmaSofia, the psychedelics advocacy group he founded with his American-born wife and fellow scientist, Teri Krebs, had not already won some unlikely supporters, including a retired Norwegian Supreme Court judge who serves as their legal adviser. The group, whose name derives from street slang for MDMA and the Greek word for wisdom, stands in the vanguard of a global movement now pushing to revise drug policies set in the 1970s. That it has gained traction in a country so committed to controlling drug use shows how much old orthodoxies have crumbled. The Norwegian group wants not only to stir discussion about prohibited drugs, but also to manufacture them, in part, it argues, to guarantee that they are safe. It recently began an online campaign to raise money so that it can, in cooperation with a Norwegian pharmaceuticals company, start quality-controlled production of psilocybin and MDMA, drugs that Mr. Johansen says saved and transformed his life. © 2015 The New York Times Company
Keyword: Drug Abuse
Link ID: 20886 - Posted: 05.05.2015
By Dialynn Dwyer @dia_dwyer Warning: The above video contains graphic images. Steven Keating says he fought his cancer with curiosity. The MIT doctoral student was diagnosed in the summer of 2014 with a baseball-sized brain tumor, and during his treatment he gathered his health data in order to understand the science behind what his body was going through. He even filmed his ten hour brain surgery. And though his surgery was performed and filmed last summer, it gained attention recently when Vox wrote about Keating and his surgery. Through his experience, Keating became passionate about more transparent health records. “Healthcare should be a two-way road, patients alongside doctors and researchers as a team,” he says on his website. “The future will be driven by networked healthcare, support communities, and I believe patient curiosity. I do believe learning, understanding, and access can heal.” Keating has given public talks about his experience, and he has shared all his findings, including the condensed video of his surgery, through his website for anyone to study.
Link ID: 20884 - Posted: 05.05.2015
By Nicholas Bakalar The type of sugar you eat may affect your cravings for high-calorie foods, researchers report. An experiment with 24 healthy volunteers found that compared with consuming glucose, consuming fructose — the sugar found in fruits, honey and corn syrup — resulted in more activity in the brain’s reward regions, increased responses to images of food and a tendency to choose eating a high-calorie food over a future monetary reward. The volunteers drank a 10-ounce glass of cherry-flavored liquid that contained two and a half ounces of fructose or glucose. (Table sugar, or sucrose, extracted from sugar cane or sugar beets, is a compound of glucose and fructose.) Researchers also took blood samples to measure levels of glucose, fructose and insulin, and of leptin and ghrelin, enzymes involved in controlling hunger and feelings of fullness. Before having their drinks, the participants rated their desire to eat on a one-to-10 scale from “not at all” to “very much.” Then they drank the liquids and had functional magnetic resonance imaging brain scans while looking at images of food and of neutral objects like buildings or baskets. As they did so, they rated their hunger using the scale. The volunteers were then presented with images of high-calorie foods and asked whether they would like to have the food now, or a monetary award a month later instead. The study, published in the journal PNAS, found that compared with glucose, consuming fructose produced greater responses to food cues in the orbital frontal cortex of the brain, a region that plays an important role in reward processing. The fructose drink also produced greater activity in the visual cortex when volunteers looked at images of food, a finding that suggests increased craving compared with glucose. © 2015 The New York Times Company
Link ID: 20883 - Posted: 05.05.2015
By Paca Thomas Wasabi and Sriracha each activate different receptors on the tongue, both of which warn your brain of the atomic reaction to come. These key flavor receptors, TRPA1 and TRPV1, have been the subject of recent research—but why all the scientific study of hot and spicy condiments? One word: pain. The video above explains how our tongues react to heat in our food, and how that often triggers the body’s own bespoke painkiller.
Keyword: Chemical Senses (Smell & Taste)
Link ID: 20879 - Posted: 05.04.2015
By HOWARD MEGDAL Ali Krieger has a lot on her plate this year. As a defender for the United States women’s national team, she is weeks away from the start of her second World Cup. And as one of the most prominent members of the National Women’s Soccer League, she is helping build an audience for her team and the fledgling league. On April 10, though, those roles were jeopardized when Krieger, playing for the Washington Spirit in an N.W.S.L. game at Houston, sustained a concussion after rising for a header. “Right when it happened, I had no idea why I was lying on the ground and why people were standing over me,” Krieger said by telephone last week. “And people were talking to me — I couldn’t really open my eyes at first. I was like, ‘Is this a dream?’ ” Krieger said that she lost consciousness before hitting the ground and that when she woke up, even as she lay on the grass, she quickly tried to diagnose the injury. Krieger said she believed the concussion was minor — certainly less serious than one she sustained in 2013 that took her a couple of months to recover from. But injuries like hers and the ones sustained by several other players in high-profile cases have troubled concussion activists. They say that despite clear progress in the recognition and treatment of head injuries in soccer, it is often up to the injured athlete or that athlete’s coach to determine when an injury requires removal from play. In the worst cases, the time remaining in a match and the score play a role in the decision. The ESPN analyst Taylor Twellman, a former striker whose playing career was ended by head injuries, has been a vocal advocate on television and social media for better treatment of head injuries. But given the pressure to succeed at the game’s top levels, he said in an email, “I’m scared of what I still hear in 2015.” © 2015 The New York Times Company
Keyword: Brain Injury/Concussion
Link ID: 20876 - Posted: 05.04.2015
By Aleksandra Sagan, CBC News In a Dutch town about 20 kilometres outside of Amsterdam, a small community lives in what at first glance seems like a real-life version of The Truman Show. Hogewey has a grocery store, a theatre and a barber shop. The only twist is that many of its 152 residents live unaware that their orderly community is actually a nursing home for people with severe dementia. "We protect our residents from the unsafe world. They do not understand the world outside this because the outside world doesn't understand them," says Yvonne van Amerongen, an employee at Hogewey who also helped develop the concept. Hogewey was officially opened in 2007, but the idea has now caught the attention of health-care professionals in Ontario and Alberta. Rhonda Desroches, who helped create a smaller-scale Hogewey in Penetanguishene, Ont., says relatives of the residents are pleased with how happy their family members seem to be in the new facility. Dementia is a growing problem. According to the Alzheimer Society Canada, one out of 20 Canadians over 65 has Alzheimer's Disease, and that figure jumps to one in four for Canadians over 85. In 2012, the World Health Organization declared dementia a public health priority. Many dementia patients move into nursing homes, where they are monitored in a safe setting. But some medical professionals want to shift patients away from unfamiliar, clinical settings and into spaces that resemble more typical surroundings. Hogewey creates a familiar, "normal" environment that dementia patients understand, says van Amerongen. The citizens of Hogewey share a house with about six others, and are classified according to one of seven lifestyles. ©2015 CBC/Radio-Canada
Link ID: 20875 - Posted: 05.04.2015
By Emily Underwood NASA hopes to send the first round-trip, manned spaceflight to Mars by the 2030s. If the mission succeeds, astronauts could spend several years potentially being bombarded with cosmic rays—high-energy particles launched across space by supernovae and other galactic explosions. Now, a study in mice suggests that these particles could alter the shape of neurons, impairing astronauts’ memories and other cognitive abilities. The concern about cosmic rays is a long-standing one, prompting NASA (and science fiction writers) to spend a lot of time discussing ways of protecting astronauts from them. (A buffer of water around the spacecraft’s hull is one popular idea.) But scientists don’t really know how much of a threat the radiation poses. It’s not feasible to study the effects of cosmic rays on real astronauts, such as those living in the International Space Station, because many variables, including the stress of living on a spaceship, can affect cognition, says Patric Stanton, a cell biologist at New York Medical College in Valhalla. It’s also impossible to control the level of radiation astronauts are exposed to, making it difficult to do rigorous experiments, he says. To overcome those challenges, several NASA-funded research groups are testing cosmic radiation on mice. In the new study, published today in Science Advances, Charles Limoli, a molecular biologist at the University of California, Irvine, and colleagues took male mice to a particle accelerator at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory in Upton, New York. There, they catapulted oxygen and titanium ions down a 100-meter transport tunnel and into the restrained rodents’ brains at roughly two-thirds the speed of light. The dose of high-energy particles resembled the radiation likely to pass through the unprotected hull of a spaceship over the course of a mission to Mars, Limoli says. © 2015 American Association for the Advancement of Science
Link ID: 20873 - Posted: 05.02.2015
by Jacob Aron Now that's an in-flight meal. To snatch a mealworm in mid-air, the bat in this video performs impressive aerial acrobatics aided by a unique cluster of touch sensors on its wings. Bats are known to use echolocation to identify their dinner, steering towards prey by listening for reflected sounds. It turns out that their sense of touch plays a key role as well. Ellen Lumpkin of Columbia University, New York, and her colleagues have discovered that bats have a special arrangement of hairs and touch-sensitive receptors across their wings that detect changes in airflow to help stabilise flight. The team also found that sensory neurons arranged in a pattern on bat wings (pictured) send signals to the lower spinal cord, which is unusual for a mammal. This part of the spinal cord usually receives messages from an animal's torso. The bizarre circuitry reflects the embryonic origins of bat wings, which form when their front limbs, torso and hind limbs fuse together. Journal reference: Cell Reports, DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.04.001 © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd
Keyword: Pain & Touch
Link ID: 20872 - Posted: 05.02.2015
Monya Baker An ambitious effort to replicate 100 research findings in psychology ended last week — and the data look worrying. Results posted online on 24 April, which have not yet been peer-reviewed, suggest that key findings from only 39 of the published studies could be reproduced. But the situation is more nuanced than the top-line numbers suggest (See graphic, 'Reliability test'). Of the 61 non-replicated studies, scientists classed 24 as producing findings at least “moderately similar” to those of the original experiments, even though they did not meet pre-established criteria, such as statistical significance, that would count as a successful replication. The results should convince everyone that psychology has a replicability problem, says Hal Pashler, a cognitive psychologist at the University of California, San Diego, and an author of one of the papers whose findings were successfully repeated. “A lot of working scientists assume that if it’s published, it’s right,” he says. “This makes it hard to dismiss that there are still a lot of false positives in the literature.” But Daniele Fanelli, who studies bias and scientific misconduct at Stanford University in California, says the results suggest that the reproducibility of findings in psychology does not necessarily lag behind that in other sciences. There is plenty of room for improvement, he adds, but earlier studies have suggested that reproducibility rates in cancer biology and drug discovery could be even lower1, 2. “From my expectations, these are not bad at all,” Fanelli says. “Though I have spoken to psychologists who are quite disappointed.” © 2015 Nature Publishing Group,
Link ID: 20871 - Posted: 05.02.2015
by Simon Oxenham As regular readers will be well aware, much of what I've covered on this blog has been about the use and abuse of the prefix "neuro" to mislead. You don't have to look far to see that most people seem to be pretty disconnected from the science of the brain. This becomes a problem once you realize how this allows us to be misled. Take, for example, the adverts for "brain training" games that stalk you on the internet with claims that don't even remotely hold water; or the fact that a laughable technique called "Brain Gym" that involves making children perform pointless exercises and is based on no evidence whatsoever continues to be widespread in schools across the world at a cost of hundreds of thousands of dollars, and has been used by as many as 39 percent of teachers in the UK. Drop a few brain-related words and it seems even teachers can lose the capacity for critical thought en masse. In 2008, a paper titled "The Seductive Allure of Neuroscience Explanations," struck a chord with me when it made the case that we can be suckered into judging bad psychological explanations as better than they really are if they are served with a side order of irrelevant neuroscience. Another paper published the same year suggested that just showing an image of the brain alongside articles describing fictitious neuroscience research (for example claiming that watching TV improves mathematical ability) resulted in people rating the standard of reasoning in the articles as higher. In 2013 however, a paper was published that remains a strong contender for the award of best-named paper of all time: "The Seductive Allure of Seductive Allure." The paper pointed out flaws in both of the 2008 papers: The neuroscience explanations were longer and arguably added to the psychological explanations. It could be the case that more complicated-sounding, or seemingly better-explained explanations are simply more persuasive. © Copyright 2015, The Big Think, Inc.
Keyword: Brain imaging
Link ID: 20870 - Posted: 05.02.2015
By Kenneth Miller At first, no one noticed that Joe Borelli was losing his mind — no one, that is, but Borelli himself. The trim, dark-haired radiologist was 43 years old. He ran two practices, was an assistant professor at the Medical University of South Carolina and played a ferocious game of tennis. Yet he began to have trouble recalling friends’ names, forgot to run important errands and got lost driving in his own neighborhood. He’d doze off over paperwork and awaken with drool dampening his lab coat. Borelli feared he had a neurodegenerative disease, perhaps early onset Alzheimer’s. But as a physician, he knew that memory loss coupled with fatigue could also indicate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a disorder in which sagging tissue periodically blocks the upper airway during slumber. The sufferer stops breathing for seconds or minutes, until the brain’s alarm centers rouse him enough to tighten throat muscles. Although the cycle may repeat hundreds of times a night, the patient is usually unaware of any disturbance. Borelli checked in to a sleep clinic for tests, which came out negative. He went to a neurologist, who found nothing wrong. At another sleep clinic, Borelli was diagnosed with borderline OSA; the doctor prescribed a CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) machine, designed to keep his airway open by gently inflating it. But he still awoke feeling exhausted, and he quit using the device after a couple of months. Borelli’s fingers soon grew so clumsy that he couldn’t button his shirt cuffs.
Link ID: 20869 - Posted: 05.02.2015
|By Brian Bienkowski and Environmental Health News Male minnows exposed to a widely used diabetes drug ubiquitous in wastewater effluent had feminized reproductive parts and were smaller and less fertile, according to a new study. It is the first study to examine the drug metformin’s impact on fish endocrine systems and suggests that non-hormone pharmaceuticals pervasive in wastewater may cause reproductive and development problems in exposed fish. Metformin is largely used to combat insulin resistance associated with type-2 diabetes, which accounts for about 90 percent of all diagnosed U.S. adult diabetes cases. Researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee exposed young fathead minnows to water containing levels of metformin commonly found in wastewater effluent. Eighty-four percent of 31 metformin-exposed male fish exhibited feminized reproductive organs. “Normally in females you see eggs developed in ova, in males, you see a different structure – producing tiny sperm instead of an egg structure,” said Rebecca Klaper, an associate professor at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and senior author of the study. “We saw development of larger egg structures within the [male’s] testis.” © 2015 Scientific American
Keyword: Sexual Behavior
Link ID: 20867 - Posted: 04.30.2015
by Jessica Hamzelou You open your front door to find your boss – who is also a cat. The bizarre can seem completely normal when you're dreamingMovie Camera, perhaps because parts of your brain give up trying to figure out what's going on. Armando D'Agostino of the University of Milan in Italy thinks that the strangeness of dreams resembles psychosis, because individuals are disconnected from reality and have disrupted thought processes that lead to wrong conclusions. Hoping to learn more about psychotic thoughts, D'Agostino and his colleagues investigated how our brains respond to the bizarre elements of dreams. Because it is all but impossible to work out what a person is dreaming about while they're asleep, D'Agostino's team asked 12 people to keep diaries in which they were to write detailed accounts of seven dreams. When volunteers could remember one, they were also told to record what they had done that day and come up with an unrelated fantasy story to accompany an image they had been given. Using a "bizarreness" scoring system, the researchers found that dreams were significantly weirder than the waking fantasies the volunteers composed. "It seems counterintuitive, but there was almost no bizarreness in fantasies," says D'Agostino. "There are logical constraints on waking fantasies and they are never as bizarre as a dream." © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd
Link ID: 20865 - Posted: 04.30.2015
Scott Hensley When patients brought to the ER have uncontrolled blood pressure, neglected asthma or diabetes that hasn't been dealt with, doctors often start treatment right then and there. But what happens when the patient turns out to be addicted to opioids, such as oxycodone or heroin? In case of an overdose, the medical team can take action to rescue the patient. The underlying addiction is something else, though. Like asthma or diabetes, opioid addiction is a chronic condition. Could starting treatment for addiction in the ER get someone on right road faster? Doctors at Yale University thought it was possible. "You can normalize this chronic disease like any other chronic disease," says Dr. Gail D'Onofrio, chief of emergency medicine at Yale's med school. A kit with naloxone, also known by its brand name Narcan, is displayed at the South Jersey AIDS Alliance in Atlantic City. Naloxone counters an overdose with heroin or certain prescription painkillers by blocking the receptors these opioids bind to in the brain. She and her colleagues at Yale-New Haven Hospital in Connecticut tested whether prescribing medicine to ease withdrawal symptoms in combination with a brief counseling intervention and a focused referral for help would improve the chances a person would get into addiction treatment. It worked pretty well, according to results of a study published Tuesday in JAMA, the journal of the American Medical Association. © 2015 NPR
Keyword: Drug Abuse
Link ID: 20862 - Posted: 04.30.2015
By JEFFREY ELY, ALEXANDER FRANKEL and EMIR KAMENICA IMAGINE the following situation. After a grueling day at work, you plop down in front of your TV, ready to relax. Your TiVo has recorded all of the day’s March Madness games. You’ve sequestered yourself away from any news about who won or lost. Which game to watch? Suddenly, your spouse pops in and tells you to stay away from Villanova versus Lafayette, which was a blowout, and to watch Baylor versus Georgia State, a nail-biter. Is this recommendation appreciated? Hardly. Baylor versus Georgia State was exciting because the unexpected happened: It was a back-and-forth affair in which Georgia State, the underdog, clinched the upset only in the final moments. But if you know in advance that it’s a nail-biter, you will expect the unexpected, ruining the surprise. It’s a lesson that the filmmaker M. Night Shyamalan, for one, seems to have missed. Once it’s common knowledge that your movie will have a dramatic, unexpected plot twist at the end, then your movie no longer has a dramatic, unexpected plot twist at the end. To be thrilling, you must occasionally be boring. This is one of several lessons that came out of our recent study of drama-based entertainment using the tools of information economics — the results of which were published in the Journal of Political Economy in February. When we recognize that the capacity to surprise an audience is a scarce resource (“You can’t fool all of the people all of the time”), it becomes natural to use economic theory to optimize that resource.
Link ID: 20860 - Posted: 04.29.2015
Amy Coats Those split second decisions, made almost without thinking. When to put your foot on the pedal when you’re at the red light. When to check how those sausages are doing. Remembering to grab your lunch from the fridge seconds before you leave the house. Or – too often – 20 minutes after. And those carefully considered ones. Do I just finish this paragraph before I make a cup of tea? Or do I wait until the boss is clear of the kitchen? Timing, that is our perception and estimation of time, is key in determining how we behave and in the decisions we make. New findings suggest that time in the brain is relative, not absolute. This means that your brain ‘encodes’ your sense of time depending on what happens to you, and not by the second, minute or hour. And this in turn determines how you behave. Alas, you could be forgiven for feeling that the units of time common to everyone worldwide, except perhaps the odd Amazonian tribe, are pretty well ingrained. My partner and I will often make a quick bet on what time it is before we check our phone (all sigh!/rejoice! [delete as appropriate], the dwindling watch-less generation). And we’re both pretty good at getting to within 5 or 10 minutes, even if we haven’t known the exact time all day. He’s normally better at it, perhaps because he’s male? Perhaps it tends to fly/drag for me because I’m having more/less fun? Perhaps that’s another story. In the 2004 reality TV show Shattered, contestants who had been sleep-deprived for over 140 hours went head-to-head to predict when an arbitrary amount of time had passed – in this case, one minute and seven seconds. With the pressure of £100,000 prize money at stake, Dermot O’Leary grimacing nearby, a studio audience rustling in the darkness, and no cues except their ‘inner clock’, contestants were almost unbelievably close. The loser, Jonathan, was 0.4 seconds out, while Jimmy, the winner, was just one tenth of a second out. © 2015 Guardian News and Media Limited
Link ID: 20859 - Posted: 04.29.2015
// by Jennifer Viegas Male species of a West African monkey communicate using at least these six main sounds: boom-boom, krak, krak-oo, hok, hok-oo and wak-oo. Key to the communication by the male Campbell's monkey is the suffix "oo," according to a new study, which is published in the latest issue of the Proceedings of the Royal Society B. By adding that sound to the end of their calls, the male monkeys have created a surprisingly rich "vocabulary" that males and females of their own kind, as well as a related species of monkey, understand. The study confirms prior suspected translations of the calls. For example, "krak" means leopard, while "krak-oo" refers to other non-leopard threats, such as falling branches. "Boom-boom-krak-oo" can roughly translate to, "Watch out for that falling tree branch." "Several aspects of communication in Campbell's monkeys allow us to draw parallels with human language," lead author Camille Coye, a researcher at the University of St. Andrews, told Discovery News. For the study, she and her team broadcast actual and artificially modified male Campbell's monkey calls to 42 male and female members of a related species: Diana monkeys. The latter's vocal responses showed that they understood the calls and replied in predicted ways. They freaked out after hearing "krak," for example, and remained on alert as they do after seeing a leopard. © 2015 Discovery Communications, LLC.
By Sid Perkins Imagine having a different accent from someone else simply because your house was farther up the same hill. For at least one species of songbird, that appears to be the case. Researchers have found that the mating songs of male mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli, shown) differ in their duration, loudness, and the frequency ranges of individual chirps, depending in part on the elevation of their habitat in the Sierra Nevada mountains of the western United States. The songs also differed from those at similar elevations on a nearby peak. Young males of this species learn their breeding songs by listening to adult males during their first year of life, the researchers note. And because these birds don’t migrate as the seasons change, and young birds don’t settle far from where they grew up, it’s likely that the differences persist in each local group—the ornithological equivalent of having Southern drawls and Boston accents. Females may use the differences in dialect to distinguish local males from outsiders that may not be as well adapted to the neighborhood they’re trying to invade, the team reports today in Royal Society Open Science. © 2015 American Association for the Advancement of Science
Julian Baggini is that happy thing – a philosopher who recognises that readers go glassy-eyed if presented with high-octane philosophical discourse. And yet, as his latest book, Freedom Regained: The Possibility of Free Will, makes clear, it is in all our interests to consider crucial aspects of what it means to be human. Indeed, in this increasingly complex world, maybe more so than ever. Freedom is one of the great, emotive political watchwords. The emancipation of slaves and women has inspired political movements on a grand scale. But, latterly, the concept of freedom has defected from the public realm to the personal. How responsible are we as individuals for the actions we take? To what degree are we truly autonomous agents? The argument that environmental circumstances are crucial determinates on our actions – the “Officer Krupke” argument (from the West Side Story song: “Gee, Officer Krupke, we’re very upset/We never had the love that every child ought to get”) – has for some time carried weight, not least in the defence of violent crime. Defective genes are also a common part of the artillery in the argument against the possibility of free choice. Excessive testosterone and low resting heart rates, for example, both statistically bias a person towards violence. And now neuroscience brings us the unnerving news that while even the most sane, genetically well endowed and law-abiding of us believe we make free choices, the evidence of brain scans suggests otherwise. Neuroscience reveals the seemingly novel fact that “we are not the authors of our thoughts and actions in the way people generally suppose”. I say “seemingly novel”, for it is no news that many of our apparently willed choices have unconscious determinates, which are at variance from our known wishes and desires. The whole of psychoanalysis is predicated on that principle but, as anyone who can drive a car will attest, often routine physical actions take their source from an internalised history rather than any conscious decision-making. The neural information that has made waves, however, is the fact that scans indicates the brain’s chemistry consistently determines a decision prior to our consciously making that decision. So when I deliberate over a menu and finally choose a mushroom risotto over a rare steak, my brain has anticipated this before I am aware of my choice. © 2015 Guardian News and Media Limited
Link ID: 20856 - Posted: 04.28.2015
Scientists have raised hopes that they may be able to create a vaccine to block the progress of Parkinson’s disease. They believe new research provides evidence that an abnormal protein may trigger the condition. If the theory is correct, researchers say it might be possible to prime a person’s immune system – using a special vaccine – so it is ready to attack the rogue protein as it passes through the body. In this way, the protein would be prevented from destroying a person’s dopamine-manufacturing cells, where the disease inflicts its greatest damage. This new vision of Parkinson’s has been arousing excitement among researchers. “It has transformed the way we see Parkinson’s,” said Roger Barker, professor of clinical neurosciences at Cambridge University. Parkinson’s does not usually affect people until they are over 50. However, researchers have uncovered recent evidence that suggests it may be caused by an event occurring 10 to 20 years before its main symptoms – tremors, rigidity and slowness of movement – manifest themselves. “If you ask Parkinson’s patients if, in the past, they have experienced loss of sense of smell or suffer from disturbed sleep or have problems with their bowels, very often they reply they have,” said Barker, whose work is backed by the charity Parkinson’s UK, whose Parkinson Awareness week ends on Sunday. “Frequently these patients manifest symptoms several years before it becomes apparent they have the disease. We now believe there is a link.” © 2015 Guardian News and Media Limited
Link ID: 20855 - Posted: 04.28.2015