Chapter 16. None

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Julie Beck When Paul Ekman was a grad student in the 1950s, psychologists were mostly ignoring emotions. Most psychology research at the time was focused on behaviorism—classical conditioning and the like. Silvan Tomkins was the one other person Ekman knew of who was studying emotions, and he’d done a little work on facial expressions that Ekman saw as extremely promising. “To me it was obvious,” Ekman says. “There’s gold in those hills; I have to find a way to mine it.” For his first cross-cultural studies in the 1960s, he traveled around the U.S., Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. In each location, he showed people photos of different facial expressions and asked them to match the images with six different emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, fear, and disgust. “There was very high agreement,” Ekman says. People tended to match smiling faces with “happiness,” furrow-browed, tight-lipped faces with “anger,” and so on. But these responses could have been influenced by culture. The best way to test whether emotions were truly universal, he thought, would be to repeat his experiment in a totally remote society that hadn’t been exposed to Western media. So he planned a trip to Papua New Guinea, his confidence bolstered by films he’d seen of the island’s isolated cultures: “I never saw an expression I wasn’t familiar with in our culture,” he says. Once there, he showed locals the same photos he’d shown his other research subjects. He gave them a choice between three photos and asked them to pick images that matched various stories (such as “this man’s child has just died”). Adult participants chose the expected emotion between 28 and 100 percent of the time, depending which photos they were choosing among. (The 28 percent was a bit of an outlier: That was when people had to choose between fear, surprise, and sadness. The next lowest rate was 48 percent.) © 2014 by The Atlantic Monthly Group.

Keyword: Emotions
Link ID: 20619 - Posted: 02.26.2015

by Hal Hodson Video: Bionic arm trumps flesh after elective amputation Bionic hands are go. Three men with serious nerve damage had their hands amputated and replaced by prosthetic ones that they can control with their minds. The procedure, dubbed "bionic reconstruction", was carried out by Oskar Aszmann at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria. The men had all suffered accidents which damaged the brachial plexus – the bundle of nerve fibres that runs from the spine to the hand. Despite attempted repairs to those nerves, the arm and hand remained paralysed. "But still there are some nerve fibres present," says Aszmann. "The injury is so massive that there are only a few. This is just not enough to make the hand alive. They will never drive a hand, but they might drive a prosthetic hand." This approach works because the prosthetic hands come with their own power source. Aszmann's patients plug their hands in to charge every night. Relying on electricity from the grid to power the hand means all the muscles and nerves need do is send the right signals to a prosthetic. Before the operation, Aszmann's patients had to prepare their bodies and brains. First he transplanted leg muscle into their arms to boost the signal from the remaining nerve fibres. Three months later, after the nerves had grown into the new muscle, the men started training their brains. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Keyword: Robotics
Link ID: 20617 - Posted: 02.26.2015

By Jocelyn Kaiser The number of animals used by the top federally funded U.S. biomedical research institutions has risen 73% over 15 years, a “dramatic increase” driven mostly by more mice, concludes an animal rights group. They say researchers are not doing enough to reduce their use of mice, which are exempt from some federal animal protection laws. The National Institutes of Health (NIH), which collected the data, says the analysis by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is “inappropriate.” The analysis was published online today in the Journal of Medical Ethics. Although the Animal Welfare Act requires that the U.S. Department of Agriculture track research labs’ use of cats, dogs, and nonhuman primates, smaller vertebrates—including mice, rats, fish, and birds bred for research—are exempt. To get a sense of the trends, PETA filed Freedom of Information Act requests for data from inventories that NIH-funded institutions must submit to NIH every 4 years to receive an “assurance” allowing them to do animal research. Looking at the 25 top NIH-funded institutions, PETA found these institutions housed a daily average of about 74,600 animals between 1997 and 2003; that leaped to an average of about 128,900 a day by 2008 to 2012, a 73% increase. (Because institutions don’t report at the same time, PETA combined figures over three time periods.) © 2015 American Association for the Advancement of Science

Keyword: Animal Rights
Link ID: 20616 - Posted: 02.26.2015

By KATIE THOMAS The retired tennis player Monica Seles spent this month making the rounds of television talk shows, appearing on everything from “Good Morning America” to “The Dr. Oz Show” to share her personal struggle with binge eating. “It took a while until I felt comfortable talking about it,” she said in a People magazine interview, explaining that she secretly devoured food for years while she was a professional athlete. “That’s one of the reasons I decided to do this campaign: to raise awareness that binge eating is a real medical condition.” But that is not the only reason. Ms. Seles is a paid spokeswoman for Shire, which late last month won approval to market its top-selling drug, Vyvanse, to treat binge-eating disorder, a condition that once existed in the shadow of better-known disorders like anorexia and bulimia but was officially recognized as its own disorder in 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association. As Shire introduces an ambitious campaign to promote Vyvanse but also to raise awareness about the disorder, some are saying the company is going too far to market a drug, a type of amphetamine, that is classified by the federal government as having a high potential for abuse. Shire’s track record is adding to the worry: The company helped put another once-stigmatized condition — attention deficit hyperactivity disorder — on the medical map and made billions of dollars from the sale of drugs, like Vyvanse and Adderall, to treat it. In recent years, federal officials have cited the company for inappropriately marketing Vyvanse and other A.D.H.D. drugs. In addition, some drug safety experts questioned why the Food and Drug Administration so swiftly approved the drug for binge eating — seeking little outside input — despite the fact that, for decades, amphetamines, which suppress the appetite, were widely abused as a treatment for obesity. © 2015 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Anorexia & Bulimia
Link ID: 20614 - Posted: 02.25.2015

Helen Shen Repeated head injuries in American football have been linked to a degenerative brain disorder later in life. Dave Duerson suspected that something was wrong with his brain. By 2011, 18 years after the former American football player had retired from the Phoenix Cardinals, he experienced frequent headaches, memory problems and an increasingly short temper. Before he killed himself, he asked that his brain be donated for study. Researchers who examined it found signs of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a degenerative condition linked to repeated head injuries. At least 69 cases have been reported in the literature since 2000, many in former boxers and American football players (P. H. Montenigro et al. Alz. Res. Ther. 6, 68; 2014) — heightening public concern about concussions during contact sports. Yet much about CTE is unknown, from its frequency to its precise risk factors and even whether its pathology is unique. Researchers now hope to take a major step towards answering those questions. At Boston University in Massachusetts on 25–27 February, neuroscientists will convene to examine the characteristics of CTE in brain tissue from post-mortem examinations. They hope to agree on a set of diagnostic criteria for the disease, and to assess whether it is distinct from other brain disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. The effort is sorely needed, says Walter Koroshetz, acting director of the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, Maryland, which is organizing the meeting. “The definition is the important piece that lets you do the rest of the research,” he says. And the stakes are high. CTE is associated with memory loss, irritability, depression and explosive anger, which are thought to appear and worsen years after repeated head trauma. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group

Keyword: Brain Injury/Concussion
Link ID: 20613 - Posted: 02.25.2015

By Sandhya Sekar It’s stressful being a low-ranking hyena—so stressful that even their chromosomes feel it. Researchers have discovered that the challenges of African savanna hyena society shorten underdogs’ telomeres, stretches of DNA that bookend chromosomes and protect them from wear and tear during cell replication. The stress may come from the top hyenas getting the best meat, whereas lower ranking individuals have to travel long distances—sometimes to the edges of the group territory—to fend for themselves. With increased stress, higher amounts of stress hormones and cellular byproducts like oxygen ions and peroxides are produced, both of which have been shown to shorten telomeres in other species. When telomeres fall below a certain length, cells go into damage-control mode and kick off biochemical pathways that can result in cell death. The study, the team reports online today in Biology Letters, is the first to show that the stress of social hierarchy can shorten telomeres in a wild species. © 2015 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Keyword: Stress
Link ID: 20611 - Posted: 02.25.2015

by Penny Sarchet An injection and a dash of exercise could be the secret to keeping trim. These rainbow mice, imaged in infrared to reveal how much energy they are burning while on a treadmill, are revealing how a shot can boost a muscle's ability to burn calories. Red body parts show where lots of energy is being used. The mouse on the right has a red patch on its left hind leg, which corresponds to the spot where it received an injection of a substance developed by Denice Hodgson-Zingman from the University of Iowa and colleagues. The substance is a type of morpholino, a compound that can be designed to target specific genes, in this case to alter proteins responsible for storing energy. The disruption causes muscles to burn more energy even during mild exercise, such as a gentle trot on a treadmill. In contrast, the untreated mouse on the left, which is doing the same amount of exercise, is using less energy in the same spot, as illustrated by the colder green colour. The researchers hope the injection will help people who want to burn more calories do so through routine everyday activities, eliminating the need for intense exercise. Journal reference: Molecular Therapy, DOI: 10.1038/mt.2015.2141 © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Keyword: Obesity
Link ID: 20610 - Posted: 02.24.2015

By Aleksandra Sagan, CBC News Photos of emaciated women proudly displaying their protruding hips and ribs, as well as thinspirational quotes "fat-shaming" those who dare to eat, continue to thrive on social media, despite the best attempts by sites like Instagram to temper the reach of the pro-eating disorder community. Some girls gain thousands of followers posting pictures of "thigh gaps" and "bikini bridges," as well as underweight celebrities and thinspirational quotes like model Kate Moss's mantra: "nothing tastes as good as skinny feels." "It just provides a lot of positivity for them, just in a very maladaptive way," says Edward Selby, of the more visual outlet that sites like Instagram provide. An assistant professor of clinical psychology at Rutgers University in New Jersey, Selby is the director of a lab there that studies what makes people more likely to develop anorexia (self-starvation), bulimia (binge-eating and purging) and other eating disorders. About one in 20 young women in Canada has an eating disorder, according to the Toronto-based National Initiative for Eating Disorders. And people suffering from these diseases often feel good after exercising, purging, swallowing a laxative or doing other things that contribute to their illness, Selby says. They get caught in a "cyclic feedback loop," with the positive emotions pushing them to engage more in these risky behaviours. Online pro-anorexia and bulimia communities simply add to that loop by celebrating a person's unhealthy achievements, he says. "Finally under 130! Woohoo!" writes one user with a photo of her feet on a scale. "Yay congrats," reads a response. Another girl posts a screen grab from an app claiming that she's been fasting for more than a day. It receives 32 likes and a "great job" among the comments. ©2015 CBC/Radio-Canada

Keyword: Anorexia & Bulimia
Link ID: 20607 - Posted: 02.24.2015

By JON PALFREMAN EUGENE, Ore. — FOUR years ago, I was told I had Parkinson’s disease, a condition that affects about one million Americans. The disease is relentlessly progressive; often starting with a tremor in one limb on one side of the body, it spreads. The patient’s muscles become more rigid, frequently leading to a stooped posture, and movements slow down and get smaller and less fluid. As the disease advances — usually over a number of years — the patient becomes more and more disabled, experiencing symptoms from constipation to sleep disorders to cognitive impairment. Can Parkinson’s be slowed, stopped or even reversed? Can the disease be prevented before it starts, like polio and smallpox? More than at any time in history, success seems possible. Having sequenced the human genome, biomedical researchers have now set their sights on the ultimate frontier — the human brain. The formidable puzzle is to figure out how a three-pound lump of mostly fatty matter enables us to perform a seemingly endless number of tasks, like walking, seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, thinking, loving, hating, speaking and writing ... and why those awesome abilities break down with neurological disease. Many scientists view Parkinson’s as a so-called pathfinder. If they can figure out what causes Parkinson’s, it may open the door to understanding a host of other neurodegenerative diseases — and to making sense of an organ of incredible complexity. In Parkinson’s, the circuitry in a tiny region of the brain called the basal ganglia becomes dysfunctional. Along with the cerebellum, the basal ganglia normally acts as a kind of adviser that helps people learn adaptive skills by classic conditioning — rewarding good results with dopamine bursts and punishing errors by withholding the chemical. Babies rely on the basal ganglia to learn how to deploy their muscles to reach, grab, babble and crawl, and later to accomplish many complex tasks without thinking. For example, when a tennis player practices a stroke over and over again, the basal ganglia circuitry both rewards and “learns” the correct sequence of activities to produce, say, a good backhand drive automatically. © 2015 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Parkinsons
Link ID: 20606 - Posted: 02.24.2015

By Sandra G. Boodman Catherine Cutter’s voice was her livelihood. A professor of food science at Penn State University, the microbiologist routinely lectured to large classes about food safety in the meat and poultry industries. But in 2008, after Cutter’s strong alto voice deteriorated into a raspy whisper, she feared her academic career might be over.How could she teach if her students could barely hear her? The classroom wasn’t the only area of Cutter’s life affected by her voicelessness. The mother of two teenagers, Cutter, now 52, recalls that she “couldn’t yell — or even talk” to her kids and would have to knock on a wall or countertop to get their attention. Social situations became increasingly difficult as well, and going to a restaurant was a chore. Using the drive-through at her bank or dry cleaner was out of the question because she couldn’t be heard. “I just retreated,” said Cutter, who sought assistance from nearly two dozen specialists for her baffling condition. The remedies doctors prescribed — when they worked at all — resulted in improvement that was temporary at best. For two years Cutter searched in vain for help. It arrived in the form of a neurosurgeon she consulted for a second opinion about potentially risky surgery to correct a different condition. He suggested a disorder that had never been mentioned, a diagnosis that proved to be correct — and correctable. Until then, “everyone had been looking in the wrong place,” Cutter said.

Keyword: Movement Disorders
Link ID: 20605 - Posted: 02.24.2015

A dozen university students have been treated at Connecticut hospitals after overdosing on "Molly" or MDMA, a popular synthetic party drug. Police are investigating after the overdoses were reported late Sunday on the campus of Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. By Monday, eight remained in hospital and two were in critical condition. It was unclear whether the students had been together or where the drugs had come from. Middletown Police Chief William McKenna said that their "first and foremost goal is to obtain information on the batch of Molly that was distributed to the students on the campus," adding, "this information is critical in ensuring the recovery of those students affected." A pure and more powerful form of MDMA often sold as "Molly" can cause liver, kidney, cardiovascular failure, or death. In a campus-wide statement, Wesleyan president Michael S Roth urged students to "please, please stay away from illegal substances, the use of which can put you in extreme danger. One mistake can change your life forever". Dean Michael Whaley, vice president of student affairs at Wesleyan University, sent a letter to the school body on Sunday recommending students to check on their friends. Ten of the 12 people were Wesleyan students. In 2013, Molly-related deaths and illnesses forced the Electric Zoo Festival in New York to shut down early after two young people died and four were confined to hospital.

Keyword: Drug Abuse
Link ID: 20602 - Posted: 02.24.2015

|By Roni Jacobson Several pharmaceutical drugs promise to help addicts quit, and many people embrace the ease of popping a pill. Yet research continues to show that although medication can help, support networks and therapy targeting the underlying behaviors are still the best available ways to kick addiction over the long term. In addition, some of these medications come with scary side effects—hundreds of people have reportedly committed suicide while on the smoking-cessation drug Chantix, for example. Read on for short profiles of the addiction drugs currently on the market, as well as a few compounds that may hit shelves soon. © 2015 Scientific American,

Keyword: Drug Abuse
Link ID: 20601 - Posted: 02.24.2015

By ABIGAIL ZUGER, M.D. On an early summer night in 1944, on the wooded shoulder of a rural Massachusetts highway, a man in a rumpled brown suit wandered in the shadows. Whenever a car passed, he dropped to the ground and lay flat. His hair was matted, his face smeared with mud. He was a respectable Boston doctor on the lam, hungry, lost and ill. He was Mimi Baird’s father, Dr. Perry Baird, a Texas-born, Harvard-trained physician whose severe bipolar disease ultimately destroyed his life and scarred his family with the usual wide-ranging cruelties of mental illness. Dr. Baird vanished from Ms. Baird’s life when she was a little girl. She saw him once, briefly, when she was a teenager, then never again. He died in his mid-50s, in 1959. More than 30 years later, when Ms. Baird herself was in her 50s, a large package arrived on her doorstep and her father re-entered her world. The box contained a manuscript long forgotten in a relative’s garage, written in smudged pencil on onionskin paper, a memoir her father had composed of five terrible months in his life. The story began the very day Dr. Baird said goodbye to 5-year-old Mimi and her sister, and permanently left the household. Stunned and bereft all over again, Ms. Baird then spent two decades chasing down the rest of the story, talking to neighbors, colleagues and relatives about long-ago events and obtaining her father’s medical records. Now in her late 70s, a retired medical administrator, she has, with the help of a co-author, woven all this material into “He Wanted the Moon,” an extraordinary Möbius strip of a book. (Read an excerpt.) Its core is the full text of her father’s manuscript, deftly annotated and explained. Around it she layers the voices of caretakers, friends, relatives and medical authorities. Events are revisited and reframed, turned inside out, then right side up again. The book is autobiography, biography, science, history and literature all in one, as instructive as any textbook and utterly impossible to put down. © 2015 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Schizophrenia
Link ID: 20600 - Posted: 02.24.2015

By Nathan Seppa Ask anybody — stress is bad news. The negative view of stress has been expressed so consistently that the concept is now built into our vernacular, which is spiced with advice on avoiding it: Take it easy. Calm down. Chill. Of course, a good case of stress comes in handy during an encounter with a grizzly bear on a hiking trail. In that situation, a stress reaction delivers a burst of hormones that revs up the heart and sharpens attention. This automatic response has served humans well throughout evolution, improving our odds of seeing another day. Problems arise, however, when stress becomes a feature of daily life. Chronic stress is the kind that comes from recurring pain, post-traumatic memories, unemployment, family tension, poverty, childhood abuse, caring for a sick spouse or just living in a sketchy neighborhood. Nonstop, low-grade stress contributes directly to physical deterioration, adding to the risk of heart attack, stroke, infection and asthma. Even recovery from cancer becomes harder. Scientists have now identified many of the biological factors linking stress to these medical problems. The evidence centers on nagging inflammation and genetic twists that steer cells off a healthy course, resulting in immune changes that allow ailments to take hold or worsen. Despite the bad rap stress has acquired throughout history, researchers have only recently been able to convince others that it’s dangerous. “It’s taken much more seriously now,” says Janice Kiecolt-Glaser, a clinical psychologist at Ohio State University in Columbus. “In the 1980s, we were still in the dark ages on this stuff.” © Society for Science & the Public 2000 - 2015

Keyword: Stress; Neuroimmunology
Link ID: 20599 - Posted: 02.21.2015

By Elizabeth Pennisi Researchers have increased the size of mouse brains by giving the rodents a piece of human DNA that controls gene activity. The work provides some of the strongest genetic evidence yet for how the human intellect surpassed those of all other apes. "[The DNA] could easily be a huge component in how the human brain expanded," says Mary Ann Raghanti, a biological anthropologist at Kent State University in Ohio, who was not involved with the work. "It opens up a whole world of possibilities about brain evolution." For centuries, biologists have wondered what made humans human. Once the human and chimp genomes were deciphered about a decade ago, they realized they could now begin to pinpoint the molecular underpinnings of our big brain, bipedalism, varied diet, and other traits that have made our species so successful. By 2008, almost two dozen computerized comparisons of human and ape genomes had come up with hundreds of pieces of DNA that might be important. But rarely have researchers taken the next steps to try to prove that a piece of DNA really made a difference in human evolution. "You could imagine [their roles], but they were just sort of 'just so' stories,” says Greg Wray, an evolutionary biologist at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. Wray is particularly interested in DNA segments called enhancers, which control the activity of genes nearby. He and Duke graduate student Lomax Boyd scanned the genomic databases and combed the scientific literature for enhancers that were different between humans and chimps and that were near genes that play a role in the brain. Out of more than 100 candidates, they and Duke developmental neurobiologist Debra Silver tested a half-dozen. They first inserted each enhancer into embryonic mice to learn whether it really did turn genes on. Then for HARE5, the most active enhancer in an area of the brain called the cortex, they made minigenes containing either the chimp or human version of the enhancer linked to a “reporter” gene that caused the developing mouse embryo to turn blue wherever the enhancer turned the gene on. Embryos’ developing brains turned blue sooner and over a broader expanse if they carried the human version of the enhancer, Silver, Wray, and their colleagues report online today in Current Biology. © 2015 American Association for the Advancement of Science

Keyword: Development of the Brain; Genes & Behavior
Link ID: 20598 - Posted: 02.21.2015

by Sarah Zielinski No one would be shocked to find play behavior in a mammal species. Humans love to play — as do our cats and dogs. It’s not such a leap to believe that, say, a red kangaroo would engage in mock fights. But somehow that behavior seems unlikely in animals other than mammals. It shouldn’t, though. Researchers have documented play behavior in an astonishing range of animals, from insects to birds to mammals. The purpose of such activities isn’t always clear — and not all scientists are convinced that play even exists — but play may help creatures establish social bonds or learn new skills. Here are five non-mammals you may be surprised to find hard at play: Crocodilians Alligators and crocodiles might seem more interested in lurking near the water and chomping on their latest meal, but these frightening reptiles engage in play, Vladimir Dinets of the University of Tennessee in Knoxville reports in the February Animal Behavior and Cognition. Dinets combined 3,000 hours of observations of wild and captive crocodilians with published reports and information gathered from other people who work with the animals. He found examples of all three types of play: Locomotor play: This is movement without any apparent reason or stimulus. Young, captive American alligators, for instance, have been spotted sliding down slopes of water over and over. And a 2.5-meter-long crocodile was seen surfing the waves near a beach in Australia. Object play: Animals like toys, too. A Cuban crocodile at a Miami zoo picked up and pushed around flowers floating in its pool for several days of observation. And like a cat playing with a mouse, a Nile crocodile was photographed as it repeatedly threw a dead hippo into the air. Object play is recognized as so important to crocodilian life “that many zoo caretakers now provide various objects as toys for crocodilians as part of habitat enrichment programs,” Dinets notes. © Society for Science & the Public 2000 - 2015.

Keyword: Development of the Brain
Link ID: 20597 - Posted: 02.21.2015

Maanvi Singh Your tongue doubtless knows the difference between a high-fat food and the low-fat alternative. Full-fat ice cream and cream cheese feel silkier and more sumptuous. Burgers made with fatty meat are typically juicer than burgers made with lean meat. OK, so, we've long known fat gives food a desirable texture. But some scientists are now making the case that we should also think of fat as the sixth primary taste, along with sweet, salt, sour, bitter and umami. Early in February, researchers from Deakin University in Australia published a paper in the journal Flavour arguing that "the next 5 to 10 years should reveal, conclusively, whether fat can be classified as the sixth taste." So what would it take for fat to become an official taste? "Strictly speaking, taste is a chemical function," Russell Keast, a sensory scientist at Deakin and lead author of the paper, tells The Salt. He says that when a chemical substance – a salt or sugar crystal, for example — comes into contact with sensory cells in our mouths, it triggers a series of reactions. The cells in our mouths tell other nerve cells that they're perceiving something sweet or salty and those nerve cells eventually pass this information on to the brain. According to the paper, there are five criteria that need to be met to call something a primary taste. It starts with a chemical stimuli (like sugar or salt), which then trigger specific receptors on our taste buds. Then, there has to be a viable a pathway between these receptors and our brains, and we've got to be able to perceive and process the taste in the brain. And finally, this whole process has to trigger downstream effects in the body. © 2015 NPR

Keyword: Chemical Senses (Smell & Taste)
Link ID: 20596 - Posted: 02.21.2015

Tom Stafford Trusting your instincts may help you to make better decisions than thinking hard, a study suggests. It is a common misconception that we know our own minds. As I move around the world, walking and talking, I experience myself thinking thoughts. "What shall I have for lunch?", I ask myself. Or I think, "I wonder why she did that?" and try and figure it out. It is natural to assume that this experience of myself is a complete report of my mind. It is natural, but wrong. There's an under-mind, all psychologists agree – an unconscious which does a lot of the heavy lifting in the process of thinking. If I ask myself what is the capital of France the answer just comes to mind – Paris! If I decide to wiggle my fingers, they move back and forth in a complex pattern that I didn't consciously prepare, but which was delivered for my use by the unconscious. The big debate in psychology is exactly what is done by the unconscious, and what requires conscious thought. Or to use the title of a notable paper on the topic, 'Is the unconscious smart or dumb?' One popular view is that the unconscious can prepare simple stimulus-response actions, deliver basic facts, recognise objects and carry out practised movements. Complex cognition involving planning, logical reasoning and combining ideas, on the other hand, requires conscious thought. A recent experiment by a team from Israel scores points against this position. Ran Hassin and colleagues used a neat visual trick called Continuous Flash Suppression to put information into participants’ minds without them becoming consciously aware of it.

Keyword: Attention
Link ID: 20594 - Posted: 02.19.2015

by Catherine Lawson Over the last six years Adam Gazzaley's research has undergone a transformation. He's moved from studying how the brain works, to studying the brain as it ages, then into the domain of applying methodology he's developed to improve the brain's functions. At WIRED Health 2015 he'll outline his vision of the future, one where "we're thinking about software and hardware as medicine". In particular, Gazzaley plans to talk to the WIRED Health audience about video games "that are custom-designed to challenge the brain in a very particular way". Gazzaley's team at University of California, San Francisco previously demonstrated that a custom-designed video game can be highly effective in treating a specific cognitive deficit. They developed NeuroRacer, a driving game aimed at improving multi-tasking skills in older people. The success of NeuroRacer propelled Gazzaley into new partnerships, giving him access to resources that further advance his games development program into areas like motion capture and virtual reality. He's excited about coupling his games with mobile devices that will allow them to function outside the lab. Gazzaley will talk about four new games he's working on, in particular a meditation-inspired one. Meditrain is the product of his collaboration with Buddhist author and teacher Jack Kornfield. Developed for the iPad, he hopes to demonstrate part of it at WIRED Health.

Keyword: Learning & Memory
Link ID: 20593 - Posted: 02.19.2015

Catherine Brahic THE nature versus nurture debate is getting a facelift this week, with the publication of a genetic map that promises to tell us which bits of us are set in stone by our DNA, and which bits we can affect by how we live our lives. The new "epigenomic" map doesn't just look at genes, but also the instructions that govern them. Compiled by a consortium of biologists and computer scientists, this information will allow doctors to pinpoint precisely which cells in the body are responsible for various diseases. It might also reveal how to adjust your lifestyle to counter a genetic predisposition to a particular disease. "The epigenome is the additional information our cells have on top of genetic information," says lead researcher Manolis Kellis of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is made of chemical tags that are attached to DNA and its packaging. These tags act like genetic controllers, influencing whether a gene is switched on or off, and play an instrumental role in shaping our bodies and disease. Researchers are still figuring out exactly how and when epigenetic tags are added to our DNA, but the process appears to depend on environmental cues. We inherit some tags from our parents, but what a mother eats during pregnancy, for instance, might also change her baby's epigenome. Others tags relate to the environment we are exposed to as children and adults. "The epigenome sits in a very special place between nature and nurture," says Kellis. Each cell type in our body has a different epigenome – in fact, the DNA tags are the reason why our cells come in such different shapes and sizes despite having exactly the same DNA. So for its map, the Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium collected thousands of cells from different adult and embryonic tissues, and meticulously analysed all the tags. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Keyword: Epigenetics; Genes & Behavior
Link ID: 20591 - Posted: 02.18.2015