Links for Keyword: Dyslexia

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Men who smoke cannabis could be damaging their fertility, research carried out by Queen's University Belfast has suggested. The study by the university's Reproductive Medicine Research Group examined the direct effects on sperm function of THC, the active ingredient in cannabis. The group found that THC made sperm less likely to reach the egg to fertilise it. They also discovered that the presence of cannabis impaired another crucial function of sperm - the ability to digest the egg's protective coat with enzymes to aid its penetration. The government reclassified cannabis to a class C drug in January, putting it on a par with tranquilisers. Dr Sheena Lewis, from the university's Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, said on Wednesday that the recent reclassification of cannabis made research on its effects more important. "The need to determine its effects on male fertility is even greater, so that men can make an informed choice about smoking the drug based on its risks to their health," she said. (C)BBC

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 5224 - Posted: 04.01.2004

Even though there is evidence that dyslexia has a genetic basis, researchers will report new findings today (Feb. 12) that show children afflicted with the learning disability are not doomed to a life of reading difficulties. The brains of dyslexic children can be "jump-started" with a three-week-long instructional intervention to help them use the same brain areas as normal readers, leading to better reading ability. This intervention was developed at the University of Washington by Virginia Berninger. She and Elizabeth Aylward, both of the UW's multidisciplinary Learning Disabilities Center, will discuss their findings at a press briefing during the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Seattle. Also participating in the briefing will be Dr. Wendy Raskind, UW professor of medicine, who will talk about genetic influences on dyslexia. "Most people think words are just words, but the human brain uses three neural circuits to code words in three forms, not just their meaning," said Berninger, a professor of educational psychology and director of the center.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 4962 - Posted: 02.13.2004

By JOHN LANGONE Overcoming Dyslexia," by Dr. Sally Shaywitz. Knopf, $25.95. Early in this book about a disorder that may afflict one child in every five in America, the author dispels two widely held beliefs: that children with dyslexia are prone to seeing letters or words backward, and that the problem is linked to intelligence. "The problem is a linguistic one, not a visual one," writes Dr. Shaywitz, a professor of pediatrics at Yale. Dyslexia represents a difficulty with reading, she says, not with thinking skills, one that "does not reflect an overall defect in language," but rather a weakness in a part of the language system. Copyright 2003 The New York Times Company

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 4662 - Posted: 12.09.2003

Dyslexia may be caused by a fault in a single gene, scientists have suggested. Researchers in Finland say their finding may explain why the condition seems to run in families. Dyslexia affects about one in 10 people. It is the most common learning disorder in children. Many find it difficult to recognise and read words. Writing in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, scientists said a flaw in a gene called DYXC1 may cause the condition. Previous studies have suggested that people with dyslexia process information in a different area of the brain than the average person does, even though they are often of average or above-average intelligence. Other studies have suggested they use the right side of the brain for reading instead of the left side, which is better set up for processing words. (C) BBC

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 4172 - Posted: 08.27.2003

By BONNIE ROTHMAN MORRIS Dyslexia appears to be caused by two distinct types of brain problems, a new study has found. The researchers, from Yale, used scanning devices to examine the brains of 43 young adults with known reading disabilities while they performed reading tasks. Another group of 27 good readers were also studied. All the subjects had been tracked for reading ability since elementary school. Copyright 2003 The New York Times Company

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 4008 - Posted: 07.08.2003

by Matthew Dolbey, News Writer Stanford University researchers have recently discovered hope for people with dyslexia. The researchers reported that an intensive eight-week learning program helped remedy reading problems among 20 dyslexic children between the ages of eight and 12. Elise Temple, lead writer of the study and assistant professor at Cornell University, said proper training designed to help children understand rapid language sounds is pinnacle to helping people overcome dyslexia. "The most important finding of the study is that brain dysfunction in dyslexia, which has been shown [to occur] in other studies, can actually be changed and made better to a large degree with a training program that is dealing with their behavior and their reading," Temple said.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 3512 - Posted: 03.05.2003

For the first time, researchers have shown that the brains of dyslexic children can be rewired - after undergoing intensive remediation training - to function more like those found in normal readers. The training program, which is designed to help dyslexics understand rapidly changing sounds that are the building blocks of language, helped the participants become better readers after just eight weeks. The findings were released Monday in ``Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: Evidence from functional MRI,`` published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 3472 - Posted: 02.25.2003

Flashing lights are being used in a computer programme designed to help dyslexics improve their reading and writing skills. The makers say trials have shown a dramatic improvement in both adults and children with dyslexia. They claim children who went through the six-week programme advanced their reading age by 11 months. Under the programme, a person's heart is monitored and they are shown flashing lights and colours. The makers of the technology - called Brightstar - say watching the lights trains structures in the brain to work more efficiently and so helps word recognition. The company behind Brightstar is Advanced Learning Science. Chief Executive Jim Hinds says the results of trials have been very impressive. (C) BBC

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 3254 - Posted: 01.03.2003

By LINDA VILLAROSA Jillian Polis, a second-year medical student at the Weill Medical College of Cornell University, admits that she had little if any experience with substance abuse. Raised in a suburb of Denver, she learned about drugs from popular culture. "I thought the only people who got addicted were those who were wealthy with nothing to do or the urban poor," said Ms. Polis, 23. "I got those images from movies like `Traffic' since there was little or no addiction that I knew of growing up.' " Jonathan Austrian, Ms. Polis's classmate at Cornell, said that he thought people used drugs simply to have a good time, and that he didn't know anyone who had been addicted. Copyright 2002 The New York Times Company

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 3230 - Posted: 12.24.2002

Smoking pure cannabis is more harmful to lungs than tobacco, a health charity is warning. A study by the British Lung Foundation found that just three cannabis joints a day cause the same damage as 20 cigarettes. And when cannabis and tobacco are smoked together, the effects are dramatically worse. Evidence shows that tar from cannabis cigarettes contains 50% more cancer causing carcinogens than tobacco. Dr Mark Britton, chairman of the British Lung Foundation, said: "These statistics will come as a surprise to many people, especially those who choose to smoke cannabis rather than tobacco in the belief it is safer for them. "It is vital that people are fully aware of the dangers so they can make an educated decision and know the damage they may be causing." (C)BBC

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 4: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 2981 - Posted: 11.11.2002

The scientists say dyslexic children struggle with rhythm A poor sense of rhythm could be to blame for dyslexia, scientists believe. Researchers from University College London (UCL) found dyslexic children were less able to detect beats in sounds with a strong rhythm. But children who read exceptionally well for their age were found to much better than most at spotting rhythms. The researchers conclude that an awareness of beats can influence the way young children assimilate speech patterns, which may in turn affect their reading and writing abilities. Up to 100 children, 24 of whom were certified dyslexic, were tested as part of the UCL study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (C) BBC

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 2364 - Posted: 07.24.2002

Dyslexia could be linked to low blood pressure Many dyslexic children come from families with a history of lower blood pressure - adding weight to theories of a common cause of the disorder. The origins of the learning disability - which causes children to have poor reading skills - are a mystery to doctors. It has been suggested that as many as 10% of UK children may suffer from dyslexia in some form. And many doctors believe that its cause is at least partly due to physical differences in the brain. (C) BBC

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 1272 - Posted: 01.07.2002

Poor reading skills have both physical, environmental causes
Reading problems in young children may be influenced by a combination of both neurological and environmental factors, according to a new study. "Children may fail to develop adequate reading skills because of their environment, abnormal brain structure, or both," says lead study author Mark A. Eckert, Ph.D., of the McKnight Brain Institute of the University of Florida. The researchers found that reading skill and verbal ability were predicted by asymmetry of the temporal plane, a brain area that processes auditory information. Poorly performing children had more symmetrical temporal planes, compared with a left-weighted asymmetry which is more commonly seen.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development; Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 377 - Posted: 10.20.2001

Dyslexia and Language Brain Areas
The learning disability dyslexia, which centers on difficulties in reading, once stumped scientists. Since dyslexics often have good intelligence and even may be gifted in some areas, it was thought that a little motivation could get them on the right track. Now researchers not only know that dyslexia is born of biology, but they also are getting closer to confirming the key brain areas that are affected. New insights will help pinpoint therapies and improve treatment.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 365 - Posted: 10.20.2001

Dyslexia Harder on English Speakers, Researchers Find Jamie Talan, Newsday Friday, March 16, 2001 Studying diverse groups from three countries, researchers have discovered that dyslexic people, regardless of their native languages, have the same brain abnormality, even though some countries have much lower rates of dyslexia than English-speaking countries. According to the study, appearing today in the journal Science, there are twice as many identified dyslexics in English-speaking cultures as in countries with less complex languages. Languages with more complex writing and reading systems, such as English and French, are more difficult for people with or without dyslexia. ©2001 San Francisco Chronicle Page D - 3

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 226 - Posted: 10.20.2001

Immune proteins play role in brain development and remodeling Discovery suggests new theory for dyslexia, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis Boston, MA-December 15, 2000-Two immune proteins found in the brains of mice help the brain develop and may play key roles in triggering developmental disorders like dyslexia and neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's Disease, according to a Harvard Medical School study reported in today's issue of Science. Although neuroscientists have recently found evidence that the brain is subject to immune surveillance, the Harvard researchers were surprised to discover the mouse brain also produces its own immune molecules, the proteins Class I MHC and CD3-zeta. In the immune system, the two proteins act as part of a lock and key system to recognize and rid the body of foreign invaders. In the brain, they may be part of a signaling system that recognizes and eliminates inappropriate neural connections.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 15: Emotions, Aggression, and Stress
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 11: Emotions, Aggression, and Stress
Link ID: 124 - Posted: 10.20.2001