Links for Keyword: Animal Communication

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by Catherine Brahic Monkeys may see, hear and speak no evil, but they sure can be naughty, according to the first study to compare the ability of monkeys to deceive others in order to get food. Intentional deceit is not restricted to humans, say Federica Amici and colleagues of Liverpool John Moores University in the UK. Some monkeys use simple forms of deceit, and the ability depends not on how closely related they are to humans, but on their social structure. Amici's team put up to 10 monkeys from three different primate species through the same experiment designed to test their ability to deceive dominant monkeys. Spider monkeys, brown capuchins and long-tailed macaques were shown how to access food that was hidden or just out of reach. They were then put in cages with a socially higher-ranking monkey from the same species. Dominant monkeys in all three species would normally have priority over food, but in this case they did not know how to get to it. Subordinate monkeys of all three species went straight for the food when their dominant partner was not around. But as soon as the dominant monkey was introduced, they held back. This suggests they were intentionally withholding information in order to get the food for themselves. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 1: Biological Psychology: Scope and Outlook; Chapter 6: Evolution of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 1: An Introduction to Brain and Behavior
Link ID: 12961 - Posted: 06.24.2010

by Ewen Callaway Though they wouldn't win much applause at a karaoke lounge, the infant forms of blue butterflies can belt out a convincing cover version of a tune favoured by red ants - which show their appreciation by protecting and feeding the butterfly larvae. Researchers have found that the larvae and pupae of Maculinea rebeli - a parasitic butterfly native to western Europe, though threatened with extinction - impersonate red ants so faithfully that worker ants worship them as if they were queens, caring for the developing caterpillar even at the expense of their own lives. "They appeared to be treating the caterpillars as if they were the holiest of holiest, the pinnacle of power, the queen ant," says Jeremy Thomas, an entomologist at the University of Oxford who led the new study. Listen to caterpillars imitating ants here, pupae making ant-noises here, the noise of the queen ant here and a worker ant here Playing queen As young caterpillars, M. rebeli spend their days gorging on leafy greens. When they're nearly ready to begin their transformation into a butterfly, the caterpillars descend to the forest floor and secrete ant-like chemicals. Duped worker ants ferry the caterpillar to its colony, where it is accepted as another ant, based on its smell alone. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 9: Hearing, Vestibular Perception, Taste, and Smell; Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 6: Hearing, Balance, Taste, and Smell; Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 12530 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By Benjamin Lester Inspirational followers may be just as important as stellar leaders, at least in fish. A new study finds that timid three-spined sticklebacks can inspire greater daring in their bold counterparts. The findings illustrate that leadership may be as much a product of social context as of individual temperament. Over the past several years, researchers have worked to understand how complex group behaviors arise from simple decisions by individuals. For instance, an ant trail might form on one tree branch instead of another because the first few ants randomly picked that branch and later ants followed their scent. But according to evolutionary biologist Andrea Manica and his colleagues at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, much of the work has focused on situations in which all individuals are genetically very similar, such as groups of social insects. Less well understood, says Manica, is how the greater, individual differences in vertebrates' personalities can influence group behavior. In these situations, certain individuals often become group leaders. Previous studies have identified boldness--the amount of time an individual is willing to stay exposed in order to forage for food--as a trait of leaders in groups of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). To understand how boldness could translate into leadership, the Cambridge team set up aquaria in which one side was a "safe area" with deep water and plastic plants and the other side was a "risky," exposed area designed to make the fish feel vulnerable to being eaten by birds. The team placed one stickleback in each aquarium half, separated them with an opaque divider, and trained the fish to expect food only in the exposed area: To eat, the fish had to take risks. The scientists then observed each fish's behavior and assigned it a score on a boldness scale. They then randomly repaired the fish, using the boldness scores to classify each fish as either "bold" or "shy," relative to its new partner. This time they inserted clear and opaque dividers into the tanks. © 2009 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 15: Emotions, Aggression, and Stress
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 11: Emotions, Aggression, and Stress
Link ID: 12502 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Jennifer Viegas -- Birds may be bilingual, trilingual or better, suggest new findings that birds in the wild can learn the vocalizations of other species. The discovery not only proves that birds eavesdrop on what other birds are saying, but it also provides some of the strongest evidence to date that birds can learn "foreign" calls, as opposed to just confusing similar sounds with their own. While humans may learn a foreign language for work or pleasure, the skill can mean life or death for little songbirds that, according to the study, pay attention to the alarm calls sounded by other birds when a predator, such as a hawk, approaches. "It's tricky to know what goes on inside another species' head," lead author Robert Magrath told Discovery News. "At one extreme, perhaps they are labeling, such as 'flying hawk approaching at 10m!' or 'hawk flying by in the distance,' or 'predator on the ground,' etc." Magrath, an associate professor of botany and zoology at the Australian National University, added that the vocalizations could be prompted by anxiety too. "The best evidence is that both labeling and fear have a role," he said. Magrath and colleagues Benjamin Pitcher and Janet Gardner studied three Australian birds: superb fairy-wrens, white-browed scrubwrens, and New Holland honeyeaters. He prompted each to sound an alarm call using a gliding model sparrowhawk. This predatory bird has a taste for fairy-wrens and scrubwrens. © 2008 Discovery Communications, LLC

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 12224 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By Anna-Marie Lever Female bottlenose dolphins whistle 10 times more often than usual after giving birth in order to help newborns recognise who is "mum". The findings by a US team appear in the journal Marine Mammal Science. These "signature whistles" are unique to each animal, allowing them to be used for identification. Bottlenose dolphins are highly social; in their first weeks, calves encounter many adult females that they could potentially mistake for their mothers. "The most obvious explanation for the increase in maternal signature whistle production is the need for the mother to be in contact with her calf," zoologist Dr Deborah Fripp from Dallas Zoo suggested. "However, the decrease in signature whistle production of [dolphin] mother Lotty after three weeks does not fit this idea, especially as calves actually wander further from their mothers as they get older." Instead, Dr Fripp said a likely purpose of this whistling enables a process called imprinting, whereby the calf learns to recognise its mother. "Bottlenose dolphins can swim at birth and are highly social. In other species, these traits are associated with imprinting. A calf can easily get separated from its mother and find itself among many other dolphins." BBC © MMVIII

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry; Chapter 12: Sex: Evolutionary, Hormonal, and Neural Bases
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain; Chapter 8: Hormones and Sex
Link ID: 11855 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By Lauren Cahoon "Watch out!" It's a simple phrase, but researchers have long debated whether nonhuman primates use something like it. A new study indicates that they do: Even when not threatened themselves, African blue monkeys warn neighbors of nearby predators. However, some skeptics maintain that the animals are acting out of fear, not concern for others. Blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni) have two predator-specific calls: the "hack," a low, gagging sound that warns about eagles, and the "pyow," which sounds a bit like a laser gun and warns about more general dangers on the ground, such as leopards. When a monkey sounds a particular alarm, its neighbors know to look out for that predator. Although listeners clearly understand the warnings, many scientists think that hack and pyow reflect only a basic, emotional response--a scream of fear rather than a "Hey you, look out!" That's not what Klaus Zuberbühler noticed in a Ugandan nature reserve. The psychologist at the University of St. Andrews in Fife, U.K., and colleagues played recordings of hacks and pyows from a loudspeaker near blue monkey troops, which are usually made up of a lead male and about 10 to 40 females and young. The recorded sounds prompted the lead male to follow up with his own alarm call, and he typically repeated the cry about 23 times. However, if a female or baby was close to the loudspeaker--the "predator"--the males gave an average of 42 cries. It didn't matter how close the male was to the danger; he sounded the red-alert alarm only when the females and young appeared to be at risk. © 2008 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry; Chapter 6: Evolution of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 11850 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By Stephanie Reitz AMHERST, Mass. - One gray squirrel, its bushy tail twitching, barked a warning as another scrounged for food nearby. It was an ordinary spring day at Hampshire College, except that the rodent issuing the warning was powered by amps, not acorns. Dubbed "Rocky'' after the cartoon character, the robo-squirrel is working its way into Hampshire's live-squirrel clique, controlled by researchers several yards away with a laptop computer and binoculars. Sarah Partan, an assistant professor in animal behavior at Hampshire, hopes that by capturing a close-up view of squirrels in nature, Rocky will help her team decode squirrels' communication techniques, social cues and survival instincts. Rocky is among many robotic critters worldwide helping researchers observe animals in their natural environments rather than in labs. The research could let scientists better understand how animals work in groups, court, intimidate rivals and warn allies of danger. © 2008 Microsoft

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry; Chapter 15: Emotions, Aggression, and Stress
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain; Chapter 11: Emotions, Aggression, and Stress
Link ID: 11592 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Peter F. MacNeilage A dog earns its reputation as best friend in part because it wags its tail in joy at the sight of its owner. But as a team of Italian researchers led by the University of Bari's Antonio Quaranta reveal in a recent article in Current Biology ("Asymmetric tail-wagging responses by dogs to different emotive stimuli," 20 March 2007), the wag of a dog's tail tells a much larger story. Quaranta and colleagues, examining closely the lesser-remarked fact that dogs wag their tails not just in pleasure but also when they are uneasy with an animal they are encountering, found a dog wags its tails differently in these two types of encounters: it wags the tail more to the right while greeting its owner but more to the left when meeting an unfamiliar dominant dog. Because the brain's control of the body is crossed, a bias in one direction means more activation of the brain hemisphere on the opposite side. Thus a dog's tail reveals which half of its brain is responding. This finding ties into a fascinating line of research regarding hemispheric specialization, evolution, specialized tasks versus routine, and how much like monkeys -- or dogs -- we humans might be. This study is important partly because it subjected a single population to a single experimental paradigm. This provides a more powerful demonstration than if the findings came from different paradigms applied to different subject groups; it compares apples to apples. And these tail-wagging biases fit into a general evolutionary perspective -- a sort of division of labor between right and left brain -- that involves not just mammals but also other major vertebrate groups, including fish, reptiles and birds. © 1996-2007 Scientific American, Inc.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 10881 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Megan Rauscher NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Elderly patients who carry the apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele, a gene mutation implicated in Alzheimer's disease, are at increased risk for experiencing early delirium after surgery, investigators report. They note that postoperative delirium is common in older patients after noncardiac surgery, and it is associated with prolonged hospital stays and increased rates of nursing home placement. Although it is common and may have serious repercussions, no specific cause has been identified, Dr. Jacqueline M. Leung commented to Reuters Health. "Our study results suggest that genetic predisposition plays a role and may interact with anesthetic/surgical factors contributing to the development of early postoperative delirium," she added. Leung, at the University of California, San Francisco, and colleagues conducted a study of 190 patients ages 65 or older who underwent major noncardiac surgery requiring anesthesia. Overall, 15.3 percent developed postoperative delirium on the first or second day after surgery. DNA analysis showed that 46 patients (24.2 percent) carried at least one copy of the APOE e4 allele. "The presence of one copy of the e4 allele was associated with an increased risk of early postoperative delirium," the investigators report in the medical journal Anesthesiology. © 1996-2007 Scientific American, Inc

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory, Learning, and Development
Link ID: 10669 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Roxanne Khamsi Disney's Nemo spoke in English, but real clownfish also communicate in a unique way, research reveals. High-speed video imaging and X-ray technology show that clownfish clack their jaws together to produce warning sounds before they attack. This is the first time that fish have been shown to communicate in this way, the researchers say. Scientists have known for nearly 80 years that clownfish produced a swift succession of clacking noises when they spot an intruder in their territory or want to attract a potential mate (listen to the clownfish warning noise). "It is like someone knocking on a door," describes Eric Parmentier at the University of Liege in Belgium, who studies fish behaviour. Clownfish generate about five clicking sounds per second when communicating, but exactly how they produce the noises has been a mystery. Parmentier and colleagues used high-speed video to record and analyse the body movements of Amphiprion clarkii clownfish. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry; Chapter 15: Emotions, Aggression, and Stress
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain; Chapter 11: Emotions, Aggression, and Stress
Link ID: 10310 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Will Knight Robotic and uncrewed submersibles could operate more effectively by mimicking the way some fish probe their surroundings with electric fields, say researchers. Many marine and freshwater fish can sense electric fields, but some also generate their own weak fields over short ranges to help navigate, identify objects, and even communicate with other fish. Malcolm MacIver and colleagues at Northwestern University in Chicago, US, studying the biomechanics of these "weakly electric fish", have now come up with an artificial electric-field sensing system. They say it could ultimately give robot submersibles the same additional sensory capabilities. "Currently, no vehicle is manoeuvrable enough to do work in tight quarters, such as coral reef monitoring, underwater structural inspection, or searching a submerged vessel," MacIver told New Scientist. "To do so requires not only a high amount of agility, but also being able to sense in all directions, so that you do not collide with nearby obstacles. Electro-location is perfect for this." Field disturbancesThe researcher's electro-location system consists of two field-emitting electrodes and two voltage-sensing electrodes. These electrode pairs are arranged at opposite corners of a diamond, and were submerged in shallow water for testing purposes. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 3: Neurophysiology: The Generation, Transmission, and Integration of Neural Signals; Chapter 8: General Principles of Sensory Processing, Touch, and Pain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 3: Neurophysiology: The Generation, Transmission, and Integration of Neural Signals; Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 10266 - Posted: 06.24.2010

By Katherine Unger You're at a party when you hear someone shout, "I'm going to kill you!" If you've just had a pleasant conversation with that person, it's safe to assume he's yelling at someone else. A new study suggests that baboons employ similar reasoning when deciding whether another's threatening grunt is intended for them. This is the first time the ability to intuit another's intentions through vocalizations has been confirmed in nonhumans, say the researchers. Baboons live in social groups of up to 75 individuals and frequently interact using touches, facial expressions, and grunts. The animals have distinctive voices, and a listening baboon can tell who is talking, but scientists didn't know whether a baboon could tell whether it was the one being spoken to. A research team, led by behavioral ecologist Anne Engh of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, sought an answer in a group of 70 baboons living at a game reserve in Botswana. The researchers played a recording of a dominant female's threatening grunt to a lesser-ranking female who had recently either fought or groomed with the dominant female. Subordinate females who had just brawled with their superior looked up toward the speaker faster and were more likely to leave the area than the groomers were, the researchers report online 18 January in Animal Behaviour. © 2006 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 8445 - Posted: 06.24.2010

You've been there before, stuck at an impasse with friends, unable to decide where to eat or which movie to see. Suggestions fly as time slips away, the gang still undecided. For folks atop the food chain, complex communication doesn't always serve us well, especially considering that sheep, fish and bees continuously make snap decisions that move their groups in unison without much fuss or muss. Scientists have long wondered how such animals do it. Now, one researcher believes he's found clues that point to an answer far simpler than anyone once thought. "You don't need [individual animals] to have to signal to one another," says Iain Couzin, a mathematical biologist and lead author of a study on decision-making in animal groups that was published in the journal Natureand highlighted in Discover Magazine. "You don't need individuals to actually recognize one another... and they can even collectively come to consensus," he explains. All the group needs, he says, is a few individuals with a directional preference. When they turn, one of two things happen: either the group follows or the stray individual rejoins the group. Couzin, who splits his time between Princeton University and University of Oxford in England, says in animals that flock, herd or school, rules are at play. To decipher them, he and his colleagues first fished for clues in tanks, where they filmed fish swimming. Then the team created computer software that automatically tracked fish as they moved, helping translate darts and turns into mathematical formulas. "We can create these virtual animals," Couzin says of his experiment. "Then what we can do is we can abstract. We can make a simplified version of reality... we then look at the basic kinds of interactions that fish use." © ScienCentral, 2000-2005.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry; Chapter 1: Biological Psychology: Scope and Outlook
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain; Chapter 1: An Introduction to Brain and Behavior
Link ID: 7477 - Posted: 06.24.2010

David Perlman, Chronicle Science Editor Consider the waggle dance of the honeybee, famed in science and controversial for nearly 50 years. Most scientists firmly believe the dance is a mysterious coded language that the bees use to direct their hive-mates how to fly toward distant food sources of nectar and pollen. Its insight as "language" won its German discoverer a Nobel Prize in 1973. Scores of experiments over the decades have claimed to support his theory. But UC Santa Barbara biologist Adrian Wenner, who has been a beekeeper in the Sacramento Valley since childhood, insists that it is just the scent of food that sends the honeybees flying in flocks -- and that scientists who believe in the language of the honeybee dance are merely "suckers for the exotic" whose experiments are designed to support the theory and not to challenge it. Now, a group of researchers, led by a British physicist who tagged three dozen bees with radar transponders to track their flight, claims their experiments confirm that the dance is "the most sophisticated example of non- primate communication that we know of." The latest effort to decipher the honeybee's "waggle dance" is being published today in the journal Nature by Joseph R. Riley of Britain's Rothamsted Research Center in rural Hertfordshire, together with Uwe Greggers of Berlin's Free University and other colleagues. ©2005 San Francisco Chronicle

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 7346 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Heated tail display warns off would-be predators. MICHAEL HOPKIN Faced with an angry rattlesnake, you or I might freeze with fear. But California ground squirrels take the opposite approach: they heat their tails up to warn the snake that they will not take an attack lying down. It is the first time that an animal has been shown to send a deliberate signal using infrared radiation, or heat, says Aaron Rundus of the University of California, Davis, who presented the discovery on Monday at the Animal Behavior Society's annual meeting in Oaxaca, Mexico. Rattlesnakes are a constant menace to the squirrels, often poaching young from families. This threat gives rise to aggressive stand-offs between snakes and adult squirrels, in which the rodent kicks sand and brandishes its tail in a bid to harass the predator into submission. The snakes do much of their hunting by detecting heat, using sensitive structures called pit organs in their faces. The new discovery shows that the squirrels take advantage of this sensitivity by broadcasting their message in a language the snakes can understand. © Nature News Service / Macmillan Magazines Ltd 2004

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 8: General Principles of Sensory Processing, Touch, and Pain; Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System; Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 5663 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Berlin - Big-city noise levels prompt birds to sing louder in order to be heard by other birds over the din, according to research by German ornithologists. The study of free-ranging nightingales in and around Berlin showed that chocolate male birds "singing in the dead of night" have to raise their little voices in order for females of their species to hear them. An analysis of sound pressure levels revealed that males at noisier locations sang with higher sound levels than birds in territories less affected by background sounds, according to research headed by Dr Henrik Brumm of the Institute for Biology at Berlin's Freie University. This is the first evidence of a noise-dependent vocal amplitude regulation in the natural environment of an animal. ©2004. All rights strictly reserved.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 5480 - Posted: 06.24.2010

What does it feel like to be swimming with a 15-metre-long, 45-tonne sperm whale - and feel a powerful click pulse through your body as it investigates you with its sonar? Hal Whitehead is one of the few who know. He follows sperm whales across the ocean to study their behaviour. He has found evidence that they have cultures and, as he tells Michael Bond, they possibly have patterns of cooperation more advanced than any other mammal - humans included How do you go about studying sperm whales? It is not easy. They spend almost all their lives deep in the ocean, where they are invisible to us. There is so much we don't know about them. I prefer to stick to simple technologies. I like to spend my time out at sea among the animals, collecting lots of data then trying to make sense of it. One thing we are about to try out is recording with an array of hydrophones. That will enable us to work out where each sound is coming from and so where each whale is in the group. But for it to work the whales have to be virtually within the array. This is difficult because sperm whales are always on the move, so we have developed model boats to carry the hydrophones to allow us to keep abreast of the whales. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry; Chapter 6: Evolution of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 5473 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Researchers have discovered that some monkeys process the sounds of other monkeys in their brains much like the way people process language. As this ScienCentral News video reports, it's a discovery that may lead to a better understanding of how people acquired the ability to communicate. We've all seen primates when they are monkeying around. But how much actual communicating is going on? "[Monkeys] do communicate vocally," says John Roden, Curator of Animals at the Central Park Zoo. "They definitely have different vocalizations that they'll do, that I would say have a communicative role in their interactions. If they are startled, they might make a loud vocalization that would alert the group that there's potential danger around. They have smaller vocalizations, if they find a food source or something like that, that they might want to share with others. It's not necessarily as complex, obviously, as human vocalization, but it certainly does convey information." © ScienCentral, 2000-2004.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain
Link ID: 5078 - Posted: 06.24.2010

Foraging workers push and shove to steer others around bottlenecks. MICHAEL HOPKIN When it comes to traffic congestion, ants prefer the no-nonsense approach - they barge others out of the way, forcing them to take an alternative route. The strategy allows ants to prevent time-consuming blockages on foraging trails, say European researchers. Foraging ants lay down scent cues that allow others to follow the route between the nest and a food source. As more ants follow the trail, the chemical signposts are reinforced and become more attractive. But problems can arise when too many ants try to use the route, says Vincent Fourcassié of the Université Paul Sabatier in Toulouse, France. His team found that ants are surprisingly good at avoiding congestion, simply by shoving each other off the main highway and on to back streets. © Nature News Service / Macmillan Magazines Ltd 2004

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 9: Hearing, Vestibular Perception, Taste, and Smell
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 6: Hearing, Balance, Taste, and Smell
Link ID: 5074 - Posted: 06.24.2010

NewScientist.com news service Sports fans are not the only ones to celebrate a win with a rousing tune - a chirpy African bird does the same, researchers have revealed. Mate pairs of the tropical boubou belt out their special victory song after they have deterred would-be invaders from their territory, suggest Ulmar Grafe and Johannes Bitz at the University of Würzburg, Germany. The discovery was made by accident, the scientists happily admit. They were investigating the birds' musical repertoire in the Ivory Coast when they noticed that whenever they packed up their equipment and left the bird territories, the birds would trill a particular tune. © Copyright Reed Business Information Ltd.

Related chapters from BP7e: Chapter 19: Language and Hemispheric Asymmetry; Chapter 15: Emotions, Aggression, and Stress
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 15: Language and Our Divided Brain; Chapter 11: Emotions, Aggression, and Stress
Link ID: 4953 - Posted: 06.24.2010