Chapter 16. None

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By Helen Thomson Do you find it difficult to spot a face in the crowd? Now we know why: people with face blindness seem to have a missing “hub” of brain connections. The discovery could be used to diagnose children with the condition, and teach them new ways to identify faces. People with prosopagnosia, which often runs in families, cannot easily tell faces apart. This can have a significant impact on people’s lives. People with the condition rely heavily on voice recognition, clothes, hairstyle and gait to identify people, but can still fail to recognise family and friends. It can lead to social anxiety and depression, and can often go undiagnosed for many years. Face processing isn’t a function of a single brain region, but involves the coordinated activity of several regions. To investigate what might be causing the problem, Galia Avidan at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel, and her colleagues scanned the brains of 10 adults who have reported life-long problems with face processing. They also scanned 10 adults without the condition. During the scan, participants were shown sets of images of emotional, neutral, famous and unfamiliar faces. During the task they were asked to press a button when two consecutive images were identical. Some of the images also included buildings, which people with face blindness do not have any trouble identifying – these acted as a control. © Copyright New Scientist Ltd.

Keyword: Attention
Link ID: 24281 - Posted: 11.03.2017

By Jocelyn Kaiser CENTREVILLE, VIRGINIA—Nothing unusual jumps out upon meeting Evelyn, a bubbly almost-3-year-old with red curls—except that she should not be here, chatting with a visitor in her family’s living room, twirling in her tights to the Pharrell Williams song “Happy.” Evelyn’s older sister Josephine had spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1), a genetic disease that gradually paralyzes babies. She died at 15 months. Evelyn was an unexpected pregnancy, but her parents decided to have the baby despite one-in-four odds of a second tragedy. Soon after Evelyn was born in December 2014, they were devastated to learn from genetic testing that she, too, had SMA1. “We knew what we were dealing with: We’ll love her for as long as we can,” says her father, Milan Villarreal. But that same night, frantically searching the internet, they learned about a clinical trial in Ohio and sent an email. At 8 weeks old, Evelyn received a gene therapy treatment that gave her body a crucial missing protein. And now here she is, not so different from any healthy toddler. Although she has weak thighs and can’t run normally or jump, she can walk quickly, dance, trace letters, toss foam blocks, carry a small chair, and climb onto her mother Elena’s lap. After the heartbreak of losing their first baby, the Villarreals have watched in amazement as Evelyn has crawled, walked, and talked. “It was just a miracle. Every milestone was like a celebration. We opened a bottle of wine for every little thing she did,” Milan says. © 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Keyword: Movement Disorders; Genes & Behavior
Link ID: 24280 - Posted: 11.02.2017

By SHEILA KAPLAN WASHINGTON — Everyday Advanced Hemp Oil, Bosom Lotion and CBD Edibles Gummie Men may have their fans, but the Food and Drug Administration is not among them. Four companies selling those and dozens of other marijuana-derived dietary supplements have been warned by the F.D.A. to stop pitching their products as cures for cancer, a common but unproven claim in the industry. “Substances that contain components of marijuana will be treated like any other products that make unproven claims to shrink cancer tumors,” said Dr. Scott Gottlieb, the agency’s commissioner, in a news release on Wednesday. “We don’t let companies market products that deliberately prey on sick people with baseless claims that their substances can shrink or cure cancer.” The businesses — Stanley Brothers Social Enterprises, Green Roads of Florida, That’s Natural and Natural Alchemist — each sell products that falsely claim to cure cancer, Alzheimer’s disease or other illnesses, the agency said. The supplements allegedly contain cannabidiol (CBD), a component of the marijuana plant that is not approved by the F.D.A. for any use. Unlike medical marijuana, CBD contains only a fraction of the tetrahydrocannabinol, known as THC, needed to cause a high, according to the manufacturers. The companies sell CBD over the internet in a wide range of oil drops, capsules, syrups, teas and creams. The websites feature endorsements from people — generally identified only by first names and last initials — who claim that they or their loved ones have been miraculously cured of terminal diseases and other illnesses. “There are a growing number of effective therapies for many cancers,” said Dr. Gottlieb, a cancer survivor himself. “When people are allowed to illegally market agents that deliver no established benefit, they may steer patients away from products that have proven, anti-tumor effects that could save lives.” © 2017 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Drug Abuse
Link ID: 24278 - Posted: 11.02.2017

Using an innovative “NeuroGrid” technology, scientists showed that sleep boosts communication between two brain regions whose connection is critical for the formation of memories. The work, published in Science, was partially funded by the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative, a project of the National Institutes of Health devoted to accelerating the development of new approaches to probing the workings of the brain. “Using new technologies advanced by the BRAIN Initiative, these researchers made a fundamental discovery about how the brain creates and stores new memories,” said Nick Langhals, Ph.D., program director at NIH’s National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. A brain structure called the hippocampus is widely thought to turn new information into permanent memories while we sleep. Previous work by the new study’s senior author, New York University School of Medicine professor György Buzsáki, M.D., Ph.D., revealed high-frequency bursts of neural firing called ripples in the hippocampus during sleep and suggested they play a role in memory storage. The current study confirmed the presence of ripples in the hippocampus during sleep and found them in certain parts of association neocortex, an area on the brain’s surface involved in processing complex sensory information. “When we first observed this, we thought it was incorrect because it had never been observed before,” said Dion Khodagholy, Ph.D., the study’s co-first author and assistant professor at Columbia University in New York.

Keyword: Learning & Memory
Link ID: 24274 - Posted: 11.01.2017

By Dr Michael Mosley BBC Thanks to the clocks going back, many of us managed to grab a little bit of extra shut-eye over the weekend. And that's no bad thing because, as a country, we seem to be chronically sleep-deprived. According to the Sleep Council, the average Briton gets six-and-a-half hours sleep a night, which for most people is not enough. Lots of studies have shown that cutting back on sleep, deliberately or otherwise, can have a serious impact on our bodies. A few nights of bad sleep can really mess with our blood sugar control and encourage us to overeat. It even messes with our DNA. A few years ago, Trust Me I'm a Doctor did an experiment with Surrey University, asking volunteers to cut down on their sleep by an hour a night for a week. Dr Simon Archer, who helped run the experiment, found that getting an hour's less sleep a night affected the activity of a wide range of our volunteers' genes (around 500 in all) including some which are associated with inflammation and diabetes. Disturbed nights So the negative effects on our bodies of sleep deprivation are clear. But what effect does lack of sleep have on our mental health? To find out Trust Me teamed up with sleep scientists at the University of Oxford to run a small experiment. This time, we recruited four volunteers who normally sleep soundly. We fitted them with devices to accurately monitor their sleep and then, for the first three nights of our study, let them get a full, undisturbed eight hours. For the next three nights, however, we restricted their sleep to just four hours.

Keyword: Sleep
Link ID: 24272 - Posted: 11.01.2017

Jon Hamilton People who are thinking about killing themselves appear to have distinctive brain activity that can now be measured by a computer. In these people, words like "death" and "trouble" produce a distinctive "neural signature" not found in others, scientists report in the journal Nature Human Behavior. More than 44,000 people commit suicide in the U.S. each year. "There really is a difference in the way [suicidal] people think about certain concepts," says Marcel Just, an author of the paper and the D. O. Hebb professor of cognitive neuroscience at Carnegie Mellon University. That difference allowed a computer program to distinguish people who thought about suicide from people who did not more than 90 percent of the time. It also allowed the computer program to distinguish people who had attempted suicide from people who had only thought about it. The results come from a study of just 34 young adults and will need to be replicated, says Barry Horwitz, chief of brain imaging and modeling at the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. But he says they hint at a future in which brain scans and computers can help assess a person's mental health. Horwitz was not involved in the study. "Just looking at behavior is probably inadequate for a lot of purposes," he says. "It's much better to be able to see what the brain is doing." © 2017 npr

Keyword: Depression
Link ID: 24269 - Posted: 10.31.2017

Christopher French, Alice M Gregory and Dan Denis Of all the sleep disorders, “exploding head syndrome” (EHS) has arguably the most intriguing name. EHS has been described as “a sensory parasomnia characterised by the perception of loud noises and/or a sense of explosion in the head when transitioning to or from sleep. These noises are not associated with significant pain, but lead to abrupt arousal and feelings of fright”. Although this phenomenon was first described as long ago as 1876, it was not given its colourful title until 1988. Despite its long history, it has received very little systematic research attention, with most of our knowledge being based upon small samples of case histories as opposed to large-scale investigations. We, the authors of this piece, along with the world’s leading authority on EHS, Dr Brian Sharpless of Argosy University, Northern Virginia, are hoping to rectify that situation by carrying out a large-scale survey of EHS. We’re also interested in the equally intriguing phenomenon of sleep paralysis, which involves a temporary period of paralysis occurring between sleep and wakefulness, often accompanied by hallucinations. If you have ever experienced either EHS or sleep paralysis, or even if you haven’t, we would love to hear from you. In addition to explosions, other types of loud noise perceived during episodes of EHS include gunshots, fireworks, thunder, doors slamming, clapping, shouting, and the clash of cymbals. There can also be beeps, buzzing and video static. This may be accompanied by “electrical” sensations, palpitations, breathing difficulties, sweating, seeing a flash of light, and twitching. Perhaps unsurprisingly, intense fear caused by the belief that something is seriously wrong is often reported. © 2017 Guardian News and Media Limited

Keyword: Sleep
Link ID: 24268 - Posted: 10.31.2017

By GINA KOLATA It is a question that plagues all who struggle with weight: Why do some of us manage to keep off lost pounds, while others regain them? Now, a study of 14 participants from the “Biggest Loser” television show provides an answer: physical activity — and much more of it than public health guidelines suggest. On average, those who managed to maintain a significant weight loss had 80 minutes a day of moderate activity, like walking, or 35 minutes a day of vigorous exercise, like running. The researchers conducting the new study did not distinguish between purposeful exercise, like going to the gym and working out, and exercise done over the course of the day, like walking to work or taking the stairs. Guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, by comparison, call for at least 150 minutes a week of moderate exercise, or 75 minutes a week of vigorous exercise for healthy adults. The study was published on Tuesday in the journal Obesity. The lead author, Kevin Hall, chief of the Integrative Physiology Section at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and his colleagues also presented their work at the Obesity Society’s annual meeting. Although the study is very small and must be replicated, Dr. Hall said, it is the first to assess obese people years after they lost weight with state-of-the-art methods to measure the calories they had consumed and the amount of exercise they had done. The researchers did their measurements when the contestants were chosen, and again at six weeks, thirty weeks and six years after the contest began. “The findings here are important,” said Rena Wing, a psychiatry professor at Brown University and a founder of the National Weight Control Registry, which includes more than 10,000 people. The food eaten “is the key determinant of initial weight loss. And physical activity is the key to maintenance,” she said. © 2017 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Obesity
Link ID: 24267 - Posted: 10.31.2017

There is no good evidence that a nutrient drink being sold online in the UK to "help" people with early Alzheimer's actually slows the disease, say experts. Latest trial results in patients who took Souvenaid did not find it preserves memory and thinking. The authors say in Lancet Neurology that bigger studies are needed to show if the product can work as hoped. And consumers should be aware that the £3.49 per bottle drink "is not a cure". Manufacturer Nutricia says its drink should only be taken under the direction of a doctor, specialist nurse or pharmacist. Souvenaid comes in strawberry or vanilla flavour and contains a combination of fatty acids, vitamins and other nutrients. Taken once daily, the idea is that the boost of nutrients it provides will help keep Alzheimer's at bay in people with the earliest signs of this type of dementia. But the latest phase two clinical trial results do not prove this. What the trial found The study involved 311 patients with very early Alzheimer's or mild cognitive impairment. All of them were asked to take a daily drink, but only half were given Souvenaid - the other half received one with no added nutrients. After two years of participating, the patients were reassessed to see if there was any difference between the two groups in terms of dementia progression, measured by various memory and cognitive tests. The treatment did not appear to offer an advantage, although patients in the Souvenaid group did have slightly less brain shrinkage on scans, which the researchers say is promising because shrinkage in brain regions controlling memory is seen with worsening dementia. But experts remain cautious. Prof Tara Spires-Jones, a dementia expert at the University of Edinburgh, said: "Some of the other tests of brain structure and function were promising, but overall this study indicates that a specific change in nutrition is unlikely to make a large difference to people with Alzheimer's, even in the early stages. © 2017 BBC.

Keyword: Alzheimers
Link ID: 24265 - Posted: 10.31.2017

Nick Fraser I was just finishing a talk about documentaries I was giving in Soho. I’d been asked a question about why so many films are seriously depressing. I remember that I talked about the great neurosurgeon Henry Marsh and the documentary about him, The English Surgeon. The film followed him to Ukraine as he helped and taught the local surgeons, who often resorted to using rusty domestic power tools to work on their patients’ skulls. I’d talked about him for some time, enthusiastically explaining how awed Henry said he felt every time he opened a patient’s head, and about how beautiful the brain is. I wanted to say more – but suddenly I sat down, and couldn’t say or think anything. Something had happened to me. I had gone into a different world of not making sense. I was taken by ambulance to University College hospital and given a head CT scan. There was a blood clot on my brain. I’d had a stroke, a brain attack. Time is all-important to stroke patients, and fortunately I was within the time frame to be given serious clot-busting drugs. There was something else they could do, the doctor said, a procedure called a thrombectomy. UCH offered the procedure up until 6pm. The time was then around 8pm, but the doctor heroically fought through NHS protocols and secured me a trip to St George’s hospital in south-west London, the only UK location open 24/7 for thrombectomies. I was lucky. I remember meeting the neuro-radiologist who, after putting me under mild sedation, performed the extraordinary procedure that involved sending a very thin wire from my groin to my brain, and removing one small clot and one larger one from the left side of my brain. I could understand the details of the operation, but I couldn’t say anything. I wondered if I would be all right. © 2017 Guardian News and Media Limited o

Keyword: Stroke; Language
Link ID: 24263 - Posted: 10.30.2017

By KYLE SPENCER As other college students head out to party on a Saturday night, Julie Linneman, a sophomore at Villanova University, rides the subway to a small rowhouse in West Philadelphia to meet with “her people,” a posse of students who understand what it’s like to be taken down by opioids. Ms. Linneman is a bespectacled 22-year-old who favors shredded jeans. She is a fan of cooking shows, fantasy fiction and Paul McCartney. She spent her first attempt at sophomore year — the one at Northern Kentucky University — in her dorm room, high on heroin. Coming to terms with a habit that nearly killed her, she has found support at the Haven at Drexel, Drexel University’s housing for students in recovery. Seven students from colleges in the Philadelphia area — including the University of Pennsylvania, Temple and Villanova — live, eat and socialize here, where they can abstain without temptation. More converge during these Saturday night meetings. “Sometimes you just need to be around other students who know what you have gone through,” Ms. Linneman said. They share snacks, drink water instead of beer, and talk about their life-threatening addictions. Ms. Linneman, who agreed to be named because she hopes to pursue a career in recovery advocacy, got her first pills — Vyvanse and Adderall, stimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder — in high school from the boy with the locker next to hers. She soon moved on to prescription painkillers like Percocet. The “warm blanket” effect alleviated debilitating anxiety and loneliness. Once at college, she replaced pills with bags of cheap heroin. Her roommate moved out. The drug rendered her friendless. “It was one of the most lonely times of my life,” she recalled. She grew thin and pale. She would sit in the cafeteria alone, barely eating, occasionally nodding off. The workers would ask, “Are you O.K.?” © 2017 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Drug Abuse
Link ID: 24262 - Posted: 10.30.2017

By Angela Clow, Nina Smyth, October is a dismal time of year. The clocks go back, which accelerates the onset of darker evenings and the “shorter days” inevitably lead to calls for the tradition of putting clocks forward or backward to stop. Of course, the annual return to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) from British Summer Time (BST) doesn’t make the days any shorter, it merely shifts an hour of available daylight from the evening to the morning. For many, lighter evenings are a priority and little attention is given to the benefits of lighter mornings. Arguments over clock changes tend to revolve around benefits for easier travel in lighter evenings. Nevertheless research suggests that holding onto lighter mornings might have hitherto unforeseen advantages. Light in the morning – more than any other time of day – leads to powerful brain-boosting effects, helping us to function as best we can, despite the approaching winter. All life on Earth has evolved around the 24-hour cycle of light and dark. An obvious sign is our desire for night-time sleep, but most biological functions are fine-tuned around day and night. Our bodies are honed to environmental light via a biological chain reaction. Light intensity is detected by special cells in the retina and this information is relayed to the internal body clock, located deep in a part of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This sits in the hypothalamus, responsible for regulation of internal body processes using the endocrine system, which is linked to hormone secretion, via the pituitary gland. We are unaware of these light messages as they have nothing to do with conscious vision. Their sole job is to internalise information about environmental light intensity. © 2017 Scientific American,

Keyword: Biological Rhythms
Link ID: 24261 - Posted: 10.30.2017

By Michael Ellenbogen Twenty years ago, at age 39, I began having memory and cognitive problems. My primary-care doctor and my neurologists said I was stressed and depressed. I also was diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment, or MCI. Ten years later, I received another diagnosis. Well, really two. One doctor said I had Alzheimer’s disease, and another thought it was semantic dementia. Alzheimer’s is a devastating chronic neurodegenerative disease. It is a progressive mental deterioration that advances to affect bodily functions such as walking and swallowing, and always leads to death. Semantic dementia leads to losses of vocabulary, fluency of speech and meanings of familiar words. It also is progressive. After another year of testing, physicians decided that I had Alzheimer’s. While it was a relief to finally get a diagnosis, I realized that I had been given a death sentence. There is no prevention or cure for Alzheimer’s, and no survivors. Overwhelmed, I decided to help the search for a cure by advocating for Alzheimer’s and dementia. I got involved with clinical trials and advocacy. My huge network on LinkedIn allowed me to connect with advocates and information. It gave me access to many tests, including gene tests, free. Two contacts — health-care professionals — even read my medical records and scans and gave me their opinions. Alzheimer’s is a complex disease to diagnose. The science is just not there yet. Sixty to 80 percent of dementia cases are said to be due to Alzheimer’s. But postmortem tests of elderly patients have found that dementia has several causes. s. © 1996-2017 The Washington Post

Keyword: Alzheimers
Link ID: 24260 - Posted: 10.30.2017

Sara Reardon The 70 million neurons in the mouse brain look like a tangled mess, but researchers are beginning to unravel the individual threads that carry messages across the organ. A 3D brain map released on 27 October, called MouseLight, allows researchers to trace the paths of single neurons and could eventually reveal how the mind assembles information. The map contains 300 neurons and researchers plan to add another 700 in the next year. “A thousand is just beginning to scratch the surface,” says Nelson Spruston, a neuroscientist at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Janelia Research Campus in Ashburn, Virginia. To create the maps, Spruston and HHMI neuroscientist Jayaram Chandrashekar injected mouse brains with viruses that infect only a few cells at a time, prompting them to produce fluorescent proteins1. The team made the organs transparent using a sugar-alcohol treatment to obtain an unobstructed view of the glowing neurons, and then scanned each brain with a high-resolution microscope. Computer programs created 3D models of the glowing neurons and their projections, called axons, which can be half a metre long and branch like a tree. MouseLight has already revealed new information, including the surprisingly extensive number of brain regions that a single axon can reach. For instance, four neurons associated with taste stretch into the region that controls movement and another area related to touch. Chandrashekar says the group is now working on identifying which genes each neuron expresses, which will help to pin down their function. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited,

Keyword: Brain imaging
Link ID: 24258 - Posted: 10.28.2017

By MARK LUKACH For my son Jonas’s first Halloween, when he was 5 months old, I dressed the two of us as matching lumberjacks. For the second, we were characters from the movie “Up.” I was Carl, the old man, my wife was Ellie, and Jonas was Russell, the enthusiastic Wilderness Explorer. We tied a dozen balloons to our bulldog’s collar, to make him the house. In our version, the wife didn’t die at the beginning of the movie, and we all lived happily ever after. The next Halloween, Jonas wanted to be an elephant. He loved the scene in “The Jungle Book” where Mowgli tries to march with the elephants. We resisted, since we like family costumes and didn’t want to buy three elephant outfits, but conceded. We displayed his elephant costume in his room the week before Halloween so he could look at it in anticipation of the big day. My wife, Giulia, wasn’t there for the lumberjack Halloween. She was in the hospital. Giulia was there for the “Up” Halloween. But as we approached the elephant Halloween, I suspected she wasn’t going to dress up. Because, once again, she was going psychotic. Giulia was 27 when the first psychotic episode happened. It came out of nowhere. She got nervous about her new job; she lost her appetite; she stopped sleeping; she began having delusions. The first delusions were encouraging. She said she spoke to God, who told her that she was going to be fine. Giulia had never been very religious, so I was alarmed, but at least she was hearing things that were comforting. But then the delusions turned on her. The voices said she wasn’t going to make it, there was no point in even trying, she was better off not being here. That’s how she ended up in the hospital the first time. They gave her medication. The delusions eventually went away. She was depressed for a long time afterward. They gave her more medication, and then she got better. © 2017 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Schizophrenia
Link ID: 24257 - Posted: 10.28.2017

A new study published in the journal Neuron sheds light on the normal function of LRRK2, the most common genetic cause for late-onset Parkinson’s disease. The study was supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), part of the National Institutes of Health. For more than 10 years, scientists have known that mutations in the LRRK2 gene can lead to Parkinson’s disease, yet both its role in the disease and its normal function in the brain remain unclear. In a study in mice, researchers have now found that LRRK is necessary for the survival of dopamine-containing neurons in the brain, the cells most affected by Parkinson’s. Importantly, this finding could alter the design of treatments against the disease. “Since its discovery, researchers have been trying to define LRRK2 function and how mutations may lead to Parkinson’s disease,” said Beth-Anne Sieber, Ph.D., program director at NINDS. “The findings in this paper emphasize the importance of understanding the normal role for genes associated with neurodegenerative disorders.” LRRK2 is found along with a closely related protein, LRRK1, in the brain. A mutation in LRRK2 alone can eventually produce Parkinson’s disease symptoms and brain pathology in humans as they age. In mice, however, LRRK2 loss or mutation does not lead to the death of dopamine-producing neurons, possibly because LRRK1 plays a complementary or compensatory role during the relatively short, two-year mouse lifespan.

Keyword: Parkinsons
Link ID: 24254 - Posted: 10.28.2017

By Rachel Schraer & Joey D'Urso People across the UK will wake up having gained an hour's sleep on Sunday morning, as the clocks go back heralding darker evenings and shorter days. But how much do we know about sleep and its impact on our lives, from our health and mood, to how long we'll live? 1. We're told to get our eight hours We often hear that we should all be getting eight hours' sleep a night. Organisations from the NHS to the US National Sleep Foundation recommend it. But where does this advice come from? Studies carried out around the world, looking at how often diseases occur in different groups of people across a population, have come to the same conclusion: both short sleepers and long sleepers are more likely to have a range of diseases, and to live shorter lives. But it's hard to tell whether it is short sleep that is causing disease or whether it is a symptom of a less healthy lifestyle. Short sleepers are generally defined as those who regularly get less than six hours' sleep and long sleepers generally more than nine or 10 hours' a night. Pre-puberty, children are recommended to get as much as 11 hours' sleep a night, however, and up to 18 hours a day for newborn babies. Teenagers should sleep for up to 10 hours a night. Shane O'Mara, professor of experimental brain research at Trinity College Dublin, says that, while it's difficult to tell whether poor sleep is a cause or a symptom of poor health, these relationships feed off each other. © 2017 BBC.

Keyword: Sleep
Link ID: 24253 - Posted: 10.28.2017

Nicola Davis Patients undergoing open heart surgery in the afternoon have a lower risk of potentially fatal complications than those undergoing operations in the morning, new research suggests. The study found that events including heart attacks and heart failure were less common among those who had undergone a valve replacement operation in the afternoon. The finding appears to be linked to the ability of the heart tissue to recover after being starved of blood supply during surgery – an effect the researchers say is influenced by the cells’ biological or “circadian” clock. Overweight patients less likely to die in hospital after heart operations Read more While the study suggests patients might fare better if they undergo afternoon surgery, Professor David Montaigne, first author of the research from the University of Lille in France, said it also highlighted another approach to reduce complications. “We have to find a drug that can alter the circadian clock to induce a jet lag,” he said, noting that it could also help to improve patient outcomes for heart attacks and organ transplantation. Writing the in Lancet, Montaigne and colleagues report how they looked at the outcomes of 596 patients, half of whom had valve surgery in the morning, and half in the afternoon. While 18% of morning surgery patients experienced a major cardiac event – such as a heart attack or heart failure –in the following 500 days, only 9% of those who had afternoon surgery experienced such events. © 2017 Guardian News and Media Limited

Keyword: Biological Rhythms
Link ID: 24251 - Posted: 10.27.2017

By RONI CARYN RABIN Can you be fit and healthy, even if you’re overweight? And will working out, despite the extra pounds, reduce your risk of a heart attack? The idea that you can be “fat but fit” has long been controversial. While health experts endorse physical activity as beneficial, many doctors view the concept of being “fat but fit” with suspicion. Now a new study, believed to be the largest of its kind, suggests that even when overweight or obese people are free of health complications, they are still more likely to develop heart disease than their peers who aren’t overweight. It didn’t matter whether obese people were free from diabetes, high blood pressure or high cholesterol, a condition sometimes referred to as “metabolically healthy obesity.” As long as they were obese, they were at modestly higher risk for having a stroke, at nearly 50 percent greater risk of coronary heart disease and had nearly double the risk of developing heart failure than people who were not overweight and in similar metabolic health. People who were metabolically healthy but considered merely overweight were at a 30 percent greater risk of coronary heart disease compared to their normal weight and metabolically healthy peers. “The bottom line is that metabolically healthy obesity doesn’t exist,” said Dr. Rishi Caleyachetty, of the College of Medical and Dental Sciences at the University of Birmingham in England, who was the lead author of the paper, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. “Obesity is not a benign condition.” © 2017 The New York Times Company

Keyword: Obesity
Link ID: 24250 - Posted: 10.27.2017

Bill Chappell It has the power to save lives by targeting opioid overdoses — something that kills more than 140 Americans every day. And now Narcan, the nasal spray that can pull a drug user back from an overdose, is being carried by all of Walgreens' more than 8,000 pharmacies. "By stocking Narcan in all our pharmacies, we are making it easier for families and caregivers to help their loved ones by having it on hand in case it is needed," said Walgreens vice president Rick Gates. The pharmacy chain is making the move as America struggles to respond to an opioid epidemic that President Trump is declaring a national emergency on Thursday, hoping to fight the opioid crisis that has struck families and communities from rural areas to cities. Calling the Walgreens move "an important milestone," Seamus Mulligan, CEO of Narcan maker Adapt Pharma, said that letting people get the medicine "without an individual prescription in 45 states is critical in combating this crisis." In recent years, both Walgreens, the nation's No. 2 pharmacy chain, and CVS, the No. 1 chain, have moved to widen access to Narcan and other products that contain naloxone, a fast-acting overdose antidote. As of last month, CVS reportedly offered prescription-free naloxone in 43 states. The chain has said that its pharmacies "in most communities have naloxone on hand and can dispense it the same day or ordered for the next business day." © 2017 npr

Keyword: Drug Abuse
Link ID: 24249 - Posted: 10.27.2017