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Jon Hamilton The visual impairment known as "lazy eye" can be treated in kids by covering their other eye with a patch. Scientists may have found a way to treat adults with the condition using a pufferfish toxin. MARY LOUISE KELLY, HOST: Children who develop the visual impairment often called lazy eye can be treated by covering their other eye with a patch. Now researchers think they have found a way to treat adults using a toxin found in deadly puffer fish. The approach has only been tried in animals so far, but NPR's Jon Hamilton reports the results are encouraging. JON HAMILTON, BYLINE: A lazy eye isn't really lazy. The term refers to amblyopia, a medical condition that occurs when the brain starts ignoring the signals from one eye. Existing treatments restrict use of the strong eye in order to force the brain to pay attention to the weak one. But Mark Bear, a neuroscientist at MIT, says that approach has limits. MARK BEAR: There are a very significant number of adults with amblyopia where the treatment either didn't work or it was initiated too late. HAMILTON: After a critical period that ends at about age 10, the connections between eye and brain become less malleable. They lose what scientists call plasticity. So for several decades, Bear and a team of researchers have been trying to answer a question. BEAR: How can we rejuvenate these connections? How can they be brought back online? HAMILTON: To find out, Bear's team studied adults with amblyopia who lost their strong eye to a disease or an injury. © 2021 npr

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 13: Memory and Learning
Link ID: 27989 - Posted: 09.15.2021

By Talia Ogliore New research from Washington University in St. Louis reveals that neurons in the visual cortex — the part of the brain that processes visual stimuli — change their responses to the same stimulus over time. Although other studies have documented “representational drift” in neurons in the parts of the brain associated with odor and spatial memory, this result is surprising because neural activity in the primary visual cortex is thought to be relatively stable. Xia The study published Aug. 27 in Nature Communications was led by Ji Xia, a recent PhD graduate of the laboratory of Ralf Wessel, professor of physics in Arts & Sciences. Xia is now a postdoctoral fellow at Columbia University. “We know that the brain is a flexible structure because we expect the neural activity in the brain to change over days when we learn, or when we gain experience — even as adults,” Xia said. “What is somewhat unexpected is that even when there is no learning, or no experience changes, neural activity still changes across days in different brain areas.” Researchers in Wessel’s group explore sensory information processing in the brain. Working with collaborators, they use novel data analysis to address questions of dynamics and computation in neural circuits of the visual cortex of the brain. Study co-senior author Michael J. Goard, from the Neuroscience Research Institute at the University of California, Santa Barbara, showed mice a single, short movie clip on a loop. (They used a section of the opening from a classic Orson Welles black-and-white film, de rigueur for today’s mouse vision studies.) While a mouse watched the movie, researchers simultaneously recorded activity in several hundred neurons in the primary visual cortex, using two-photon calcium imaging. ©2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 27972 - Posted: 09.01.2021

By Carolyn Wilke Frog and toad pupils come in quite the array, from slits to circles. But overall, there are seven main shapes of these animals’ peepholes, researchers report in the Aug. 25 Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Eyes are “among the most charismatic features of frogs and toads,” says herpetologist Julián Faivovich of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” in Buenos Aires. People have long marveled at the animals’ many iris colors and pupil shapes. Yet “there’s almost nothing known about the anatomical basis of that diversity.” Faivovich and colleagues catalogued pupil shapes from photos of 3,261 species, representing 44 percent of known frogs and toads. The team identified seven main shapes: vertical slits, horizontal slits, diamonds, circles, triangles, fans and inverted fans. The most common shape, horizontal slits, appeared in 78 percent of studied species. Mapping pupil shapes onto a tree of evolutionary relationships allowed the scientists to infer how these seven shapes emerged. Though uncommon in other vertebrates, horizontal pupils seem to have given rise to most of the other shapes in frogs and toads. All together, these seven shapes have evolved at least 116 times, the researchers say. Pupil shape affects the amount of light that reaches the retina and its light-receiving cells, says Nadia Cervino, a herpetologist also at the Argentine museum. But how the shape influences what animals actually see isn’t well-known. © Society for Science & the Public 2000–2021.

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 6: Evolution of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 27958 - Posted: 08.25.2021

Ruth Williams In the days before a newborn mouse opens its peepers, nerve impulses that have been sweeping randomly across the retina since birth start flowing consistently in one direction, according to a paper published in Science today (July 22). This specific pattern has a critical purpose, the authors say, helping to establish the brain circuitry to be used later in motion detection. “I love this paper. It blew my mind,” says David Berson, who studies the visual system at Brown University and was not involved in the research. “What it implies is that evolution has built a visual system that can simulate the patterns of activity that it will see later when it’s fully mature and the eyes are open, and that [the simulated pattern] in turn shapes the development of the nervous system in a way that makes it better adapted to seeing those patterns. . . . That’s staggering.” The thread of this concept may be looped, but to unravel it, Berson says, it helps to think of the mammalian visual system, or really any neuronal circuitry, as being formed by a combination of evolution and life experiences—in short, nature and nurture. We might expect that life’s visual experiences, the nurture part, would begin when the eyes open. But, much like a human baby in the womb practices breathing and sucking without ever having experienced air or breastfeeding, the eyes of newborn mice appear to practice seeing before they can actually see. Motion detection is important enough to mouse survival that evolution has selected for gene variants that set up this prevision training, says Berson. © 1986–2021 The Scientist.

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory and Learning; Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 27950 - Posted: 08.18.2021

By Lisa Sanders, M.D. The burning started as soon as the 59-year-old woman put the drops into her eye. She blinked to try to rinse away the medication with her tears. She leaned forward to the mirror. Her left eye was red and angry-looking. She’d been using these eye drops for nearly a year to treat her newly diagnosed glaucoma, adding artificial tears for the dry eyes that appeared a few months later. And while she’d had plenty of problems with her eyes since all this started, this fiery pain was new. The vision in her left eye had been bad for a few years by then, but with an operation nearly two years earlier to remove an abnormal membrane on her retina and more recent cataract surgery, she had hoped she would have her old vision back by now. She was a physician-researcher and spent much of her time reading and writing, so her vision was very important to her livelihood. But despite the efforts of her eye doctors — and at this point she had many — she still couldn’t see well. It was when she was getting ready for the cataract surgery that the patient learned she had glaucoma. After her initial exam, her new eye surgeon told her that the pressure inside her left eye was abnormally high, and she was already showing signs of damage from it. He wanted her to see one of his colleagues, Dr. Amanda Bicket, a glaucoma specialist who was then at the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins. A quick phone call later, she had an appointment to see the doctor that day. It was urgent that this be evaluated and treated before her upcoming surgery. © 2021 The New York Times Company

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 27938 - Posted: 08.11.2021

Scientists studied the brain activity of school-aged children during development and found that regions that activated upon seeing limbs (hands, legs, etc.) subsequently activated upon seeing faces or words when the children grew older. The research, by scientists at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, reveals new insights about vision development in the brain and could help inform prevention and treatment strategies for learning disorders. The study was funded by the National Eye Institute and is published in Nature Human Behaviour. “Our study addresses how experiences, such as learning to read, shape the developing brain,” said Kalanit Grill-Spector, Ph.D., a professor at Stanford University’s Wu Tsai Neurosciences Institute. “Further, it sheds light on the initial functional role of brain regions that later in development process written words, before they support this important skill of reading.” Grill-Spector’s team used functional MRI to study areas in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) that are stimulated by the recognition of images. About 30 children, ages 5 to 12 at their first MRI, participated in the study. While in the MRI scanner, the children viewed images from 10 different categories, including words, body parts, faces, objects, and places. The researchers mapped areas of VTC that exhibited stimulation and measured how they changed in intensity and volume on the children’s subsequent MRI tests over the next one to five years. Results showed that VTC regions corresponding to face and word recognition increased with age. Compared to the 5-9-year-olds, teenagers had twice the volume of the word-selective region in VTC. Notably, as word-selective VTC volume doubled, limb-selective volume in the same region halved. According to the investigators, the decrease in limb-selectivity is directly linked to the increase in word- and face-selectivity, providing the first evidence for cortical recycling during childhood development.

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 13: Memory and Learning; Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 27860 - Posted: 06.19.2021

Dr Rocio Camacho Morales A transparent metallic film allowing a viewer to see in the dark could one day turn regular spectacles into night vision googles. The ultra-thin film, made of a semiconductor called gallium arsenide, could also be used to develop compact and flexible infrared sensors, scientists say. Though still a proof of concept, the researchers believe it could eventually be turned into a cheap and lightweight replacement for bulky night-vision goggles, which are used in military, police and security settings. The film was developed by a team of Australian and European researchers, with details published in the journal Advanced Photonics. It works by converting infrared light – which is normally invisible to humans – into light visible to the human eye. The study’s first author, Dr Rocio Camacho Morales of the Australian National University, said the material was hundreds of times thinner than a strand of human hair. The gallium arsenide is arranged in a crystalline structure only several hundred nanometres thick, which allows visible light to pass through it. The film has certain similarities to night vision goggles. Blind man has sight partly restored after pioneering treatment Read more “The way these night vision goggles work [is] they also pick up infrared light,” said Camacho Morales. “This infrared light is converted to electrons and displayed [digitally]. In our case, we’re not doing this.” Instead, the film, which does not require any power source, changes the energy of photons of light passing through it, in what is known as a nonlinear optical process. One likely advantage of this film over existing technologies is weight: bulky helmet-mounted night vision goggles have previously been associated with neck pain in airforce pilots, for example. Photons of infrared light have very low energy, Camacho Morales said, which means that electronic night vision devices can be affected by random fluctuations in signal. To minimise these fluctuations, many infrared imaging devices use cooling systems, sometimes requiring cryogenic temperatures. © 2021 Guardian News & Media Limited

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 27854 - Posted: 06.16.2021

Linda Geddes Science correspondent A blind man has had his sight partly restored after a form of gene therapy that uses pulses of light to control the activity of nerve cells – the first successful demonstration of so-called optogenetic therapy in humans. The 58-year-old man, from Brittany in northern France, was said to be “very excited” after regaining the ability to recognise, count, locate and touch different objects with the treated eye while wearing a pair of light-stimulating goggles, having lost his sight after being diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa almost 40 years ago. The breakthrough marks an important step towards the more widespread use of optogenetics as a clinical treatment. It involves modifying nerve cells (neurons) so that they fire electrical signals when they’re exposed to certain wavelengths of light, equipping neuroscientists with the power to precisely control neuronal signalling within the brain and elsewhere. Christopher Petkov, a professor of comparative neuropsychology at Newcastle University medical school, said: “This is a tremendous development to restore vision using an innovative approach. The goal now is to see how well this might work in other patients with retinitis pigmentosa.” This group of rare, genetic disorders, which involves the loss of light-sensitive cells in the retina, affects more than 2 million people worldwide, and can lead to complete blindness. © 2021 Guardian News & Media Limited

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 3: Neurophysiology: The Generation, Transmission, and Integration of Neural Signals
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 3: The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology
Link ID: 27831 - Posted: 05.27.2021

Rob Stein Carlene Knight would love to do things that most people take for granted, such as read books, drive a car, ride a bike, gaze at animals in a zoo and watch movies. She also longs to see expressions on people's faces. "To be able to see my granddaughter especially — my granddaughter's face," said Knight, 54, who lives outside Portland, Ore. "It would be huge." Michael Kalberer yearns to be able to read a computer screen so he could get back to work as a social worker. He also hopes to one day watch his nieces and nephews play soccer instead of just listening to them, and move around in the world without help. But that's not all. "Maybe be able to — as romantically poetic as this sounds — see a sunset again, see a smile on somebody's face again. It's the little things that I miss," said Kalberer, 43, who lives on Long Island in New York. Kalberer and Knight are two of the first patients treated in a landmark study designed to try to restore vision to patients such as them, who suffer from a rare genetic disease. The study involves the revolutionary gene-editing technique called CRISPR, which allows scientists to make precise changes in DNA. Doctors think CRISPR could help patients fighting many diseases. It's already showing promise for blood disorders such as sickle cell disease and is being tested for several forms of cancer. But in those experiments, doctors take cells out of the body, edit them in the lab and then infuse the genetically edited cells back into patients. © 2021 npr

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 27815 - Posted: 05.12.2021

By Jane E. Brody Look and you shall see: A generation of the real-life nearsighted Mr. Magoos is growing up before your eyes. A largely unrecognized epidemic of nearsightedness, or myopia, is afflicting the eyes of children. People with myopia can see close-up objects clearly, like the words on a page. But their distance vision is blurry, and correction with glasses or contact lenses is likely to be needed for activities like seeing the blackboard clearly, cycling, driving or recognizing faces down the block. The growing incidence of myopia is related to changes in children’s behavior, especially how little time they spend outdoors, often staring at screens indoors instead of enjoying activities illuminated by daylight. Gone are the days when most children played outside between the end of the school day and suppertime. And the devastating pandemic of the past year may be making matters worse. Susceptibility to myopia is determined by genetics and environment. Children with one or both nearsighted parents are more likely to become myopic. However, while genes take many centuries to change, the prevalence of myopia in the United States increased from 25 percent in the early 1970s to nearly 42 percent just three decades later. And the rise in myopia is not limited to highly developed countries. The World Health Organization estimates that half the world’s population may be myopic by 2050. Given that genes don’t change that quickly, environmental factors, especially children’s decreased exposure to outdoor light, are the likely cause of this rise in myopia, experts believe. Consider, for example, factors that keep modern children indoors: an emphasis on academic studies and their accompanying homework, the irresistible attraction of electronic devices and safety concerns that demand adult supervision during outdoor play. All of these things drastically limit the time youngsters now spend outside in daylight, to the likely detriment of the clarity of their distance vision. © 2021 The New York Times Company

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 7: Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 13: Memory and Learning
Link ID: 27802 - Posted: 05.05.2021

: Peter Campochiaro, M.D. A 72-year-old lawyer who is pursuing his passion for photography in retirement was suddenly unable to take sharp, well-focused photographs. An examination of each eye revealed yellow spots in the macula, the central area of the retina responsible for sharp vision. The macula in the right eye was thickened and raised in height, substantially reducing and distorting his vision. A test called a fluorescein angiogram, in which fluorescent dye is injected into an arm vein that travels to blood vessels in the retina for imaging, revealed a spot of intense fluorescence that enlarged over time, indicating the presence of abnormal blood vessels leaking plasma into surrounding tissue. An optical coherence tomography scan provided a two-dimensional optical cross section showing fluid beneath and within the right eye’s macula. The patient had a condition known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), common to about 200 million individuals globally and referred to as “age-related” because it is rarely seen in individuals younger than 60 years old. With people living longer and longer, it is estimated that by 2040, there will be 300 million individuals with AMD throughout the world. And besides the blurred vision that this patient was experiencing, other patients often complain about difficulty recognizing familiar faces; straight lines that appear wavy; dark, empty areas or blind spots; and a general loss of central vision, which is necessary for driving, reading, and recognizing faces. Besides age, smoking is a universally agreed upon risk factor for AMD; hypertension and high blood lipids have been identified in some studies but not others. © 2021 The Dana Foundation.

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 27774 - Posted: 04.17.2021

By Meagan Cantwell In order to see the world as clearly as we do, we process vision from each eyeball on both sides of our brain—a capability known as bilateral visual projection. For a long time, researchers thought this feature developed after fish transitioned to land, more than 375 million years ago. But does this theory hold water today? In a new study, scientists injected fluorescent tracers into the eyes of 11 fish species to illuminate their visual systems. After examining their brains under a specialized 3D fluorescence microscope, they found ancient fish with genomes more similar to mammals can project vision on both the same and opposite side of their brain (see video, above). This suggests bilateral vision did not coincide with the transition from water to land, researchers report this week in Science. In the future, scientists plan to uncover the genes that drive same-sided visual projection to better understand how vision evolved. © 2021 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 6: Evolution of the Brain and Behavior; Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 27764 - Posted: 04.10.2021

By Veronique Greenwood Sign up for Science Times: Get stories that capture the wonders of nature, the cosmos and the human body. In the warm, fetid environs of a compost heap, tiny roundworms feast on bacteria. But some of these microbes produce toxins, and the worms avoid them. In the lab, scientists curious about how the roundworms can tell what’s dinner and what’s dangerous often put them on top of mats of various bacteria to see if they wriggle away. One microbe species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, reliably sends them scurrying. But how do the worms, common lab animals of the species Caenorhabditis elegans, know to do this? Dipon Ghosh, then a graduate student in cellular and molecular physiology at Yale University, wondered if it was because they could sense the toxins produced by the bacteria. Or might it have something to do with the fact that mats of P. aeruginosa are a brilliant shade of blue? Given that roundworms do not have eyes, cells that obviously detect light or even any of the known genes for light-sensitive proteins, this seemed a bit far-fetched. It wasn’t difficult to set up an experiment to test the hypothesis, though: Dr. Ghosh, who is now a postdoctoral researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, put some worms on patches of P. aeruginosa. Then he turned the lights off. To the surprise of his adviser, Michael Nitabach, the worms’ flight from the bacteria was significantly slower in the dark, as though not being able to see kept the roundworms from realizing they were in danger. “When he showed me the results of the first experiments, I was shocked,” said Dr. Nitabach, who studies the molecular basis of neural circuits that guide behavior at Yale School of Medicine. In a series of follow-up experiments detailed in a paper published Thursday in Science, Dr. Ghosh, Dr. Nitabach and their colleagues establish that some roundworms respond clearly to that distinctive pigment, perceiving it — and fleeing from it — without the benefit of any known visual system. © 2021 The New York Times Company

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 6: Evolution of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 27718 - Posted: 03.06.2021

By Richard Sima Sign up for Science Times: Get stories that capture the wonders of nature, the cosmos and the human body. Though it is well-known for its many arms, the octopus does not seem to know where those eight appendages are most of the time. “In the octopus, you have no bones and no joints, and every point in its arm can go to every direction that you can think about,” said Nir Nesher, a senior lecturer in marine sciences at the Ruppin Academic Center in Israel. “So even one arm, it’s something like endless degrees of freedom.” So how does the octopus keep all those wiggly, sucker-covered limbs out of trouble? According to a study published this month in The Journal of Experimental Biology by Dr. Nesher and his colleagues, the octopus’s arms can sense and respond to light — even when the octopus cannot see it with the eyes on its head. This light-sensing ability may help the cephalopods keep their arms concealed from other animals that could mistake the tip of an arm for a marine worm or some other kind of meal. Itamar Katz, one of the study’s authors, first noticed the light-detecting powers while studying a different phenomenon: how light causes the octopus’s skin to change color. With Dr. Nesher and Tal Shomrat, another author, Mr. Katz saw that shining light on an arm caused the octopus to withdraw it, even when the creature was sleeping. Further experiments showed that the arms would avoid the light in situations when the octopus could not see it with its eyes. Even when the octopuses reached an arm out of a small opening on an opaque, covered aquarium for food, the arm would quickly retract when light was shined on it 84 percent of the time. This was a surprise, as though the octopus “can see the light through the arm, it can feel the light through the arm,” Dr. Nesher said. “They don’t need the eye for that.” ImageScientists suspect octopuses keep their arms concealed from other animals that could mistake the tip of an arm for a meal. Scientists suspect octopuses keep their arms concealed from other animals that could © 2021 The New York Times Company

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 6: Evolution of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 27704 - Posted: 02.23.2021

By Cara Giaimo Platypuses do it. Opossums do it. Even three species of North American flying squirrel do it. Tasmanian devils, echidnas and wombats may also do it, although the evidence is not quite so robust. And, breaking news: Two species of rabbit-size rodents called springhares do it. That is, they glow under black light, that perplexing quirk of certain mammals that is baffling biologists and delighting animal lovers all over the world. Springhares, which hop around the savannas of southern and eastern Africa, weren’t on anyone’s fluorescence bingo card. Like the other glowing mammals, they are nocturnal. But unlike the other creatures, they are Old World placental mammals, an evolutionary group not previously represented. Their glow, a unique pinkish-orange the authors call “funky and vivid,” forms surprisingly variable patterns, generally concentrated on the head, legs, rear and tail. Fluorescence is a material property rather than a biological one. Certain pigments can absorb ultraviolet light and re-emit it as a vibrant, visible color. These pigments have been found in amphibians and some birds, and are added to things like white T-shirts and party supplies. But mammals, it seems, don’t tend to have these pigments. A group of researchers, many associated with Northland College in Ashland, Wis., has been chasing down exceptions for the past few years — ever since one member, the biologist Jonathan Martin, happened to wave a UV flashlight at a flying squirrel in his backyard. It glowed eraser pink. © 2021 The New York Times Company

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 8: General Principles of Sensory Processing, Touch, and Pain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System
Link ID: 27697 - Posted: 02.19.2021

Bevil R. Conway Danny Garside Is the red I see the same as the red you see? At first, the question seems confusing. Color is an inherent part of visual experience, as fundamental as gravity. So how could anyone see color differently than you do? To dispense with the seemingly silly question, you can point to different objects and ask, “What color is that?” The initial consensus apparently settles the issue. But then you might uncover troubling variability. A rug that some people call green, others call blue. A photo of a dress that some people call blue and black, others say is white and gold. You’re confronted with an unsettling possibility. Even if we agree on the label, maybe your experience of red is different from mine and – shudder – could it correspond to my experience of green? How would we know? Neuroscientists, including us, have tackled this age-old puzzle and are starting to come up with some answers to these questions. One thing that is becoming clear is the reason individual differences in color are so disconcerting in the first place. Scientists often explain why people have color vision in cold, analytic terms: Color is for object recognition. And this is certainly true, but it’s not the whole story. The color statistics of objects are not arbitrary. The parts of scenes that people choose to label (“ball,” “apple,” “tiger”) are not any random color: They are more likely to be warm colors (oranges, yellows, reds), and less likely to be cool colors (blues, greens). This is true even for artificial objects that could have been made any color. © 2010–2021, The Conversation US, Inc.

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 18: Attention and Higher Cognition
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 14: Attention and Higher Cognition
Link ID: 27682 - Posted: 02.08.2021

Jessica Koehler Ph.D. The only true voyage of discovery...would be not to visit strange lands, but to possess other eyes, to behold the universe through the eyes of another, of a hundred others, to behold the hundred universes that each of them beholds, that each of them is. Marcel Proust Perception is everything—and it is flawed. Most of us navigate our daily lives believing we see the world as it is. Our brains are perceiving an objective reality, right? Well, not quite. Everything we bring in through our senses is interpreted through the filter of our past experiences. Sensation is physical energy detection by our sensory organs. Our eyes, mouth, tongue, nose, and skin relay raw data via a process of transduction, which is akin to translation of physical energy—such as sound waves—into the electrochemical energy the brain understands. At this point, the information is the same from person to person—it is unbiased. To understand human perception, you must first understand that all information in and of itself is meaningless. Beau Lotto While Dr. Lotto's statement is bold, from the perspective of neuroscience, it is true. Meaning is applied to everything, from the simplest to the most complex sensory input. Our brain's interpretation of the raw sensory information is known as perception. Everything from our senses is filtered through our unique system of past experiences in the world. Usually, the meaning we apply is functional and adequate—if not fully accurate, but sometimes our inaccurate perceptions create real-world difficulty.

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 18: Attention and Higher Cognition
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 14: Attention and Higher Cognition
Link ID: 27666 - Posted: 01.27.2021

Daniel Osorio The neuroscientist Michael Land, who has died aged 78 from respiratory disease, was the Marco Polo of the visual sciences. He visited exotic parts of the animal kingdom, and showed that almost every way humans have discovered to bend, reflect, shape and image light with mirrors and lenses is also used by some creature’s eye. His research revealed the many different ways in which animals see their own versions of reality, often to find members of the opposite sex. His 1976 discovery that prawns focus light not by lenses, but with a structure of mirror-lined boxes, helped lead to the discovery of a method to focus X-rays, and in the 1990s he developed a simple device to track humans’ gaze as they move their eyes while doing everyday tasks. Land’s PhD thesis at University College London in the early 1960s, on how scallops evade the attacks of predatory starfish, turned out to be a serendipitous choice. He was supposed to investigate what passes for the brain of this shellfish, but found its eyes far more interesting. Scallops have many pinhead-sized eyes, just inside the lip of the shell. Rather than focusing light with a lens as people do, they use a concave mirror in the manner of a Newtonian telescope. Moving from UCL, with his first wife, Judith (nee Drinkwater), to the University of California, Berkeley, in 1968, he turned his attention to jumping spiders. These arachnids do not build webs but are visual hunters. Each of their four pairs of eyes has a different task, and Land showed how the most acute of these eyes moves to detect prey and mates. © 2021 Guardian News & Media Limited

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 6: Evolution of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 27651 - Posted: 01.20.2021

By Elizabeth Preston When Jessica Yorzinski chased great-tailed grackles across a field, it wasn’t a contest to see who blinked first. But she did want the birds to blink. Dr. Yorzinski had outfitted the grackles, which look a bit like crows but are in another family of birds, with head-mounted cameras pointing back at their faces. Like other birds, grackles blink sideways, flicking a semitransparent membrane across the eye. Recordings showed that the birds spent less time blinking during the riskiest parts of a flight. The finding was published Wednesday in Biology Letters. Dr. Yorzinski, a sensory ecologist at Texas A&M University, had been wondering how animals balance their need to blink with their need to get visual information about their environments. Humans, she said, “blink quite often, but when we do so we lose access to the world around us. It got me thinking about what might be happening in other species.” She worked with a company that builds eye-tracking equipment to make a custom bird-size headpiece. Because a bird’s eyes are on the sides of its head, the contraption held one video camera pointed at the left eye and one at the right, making the bird resemble a sports fan in a beer helmet. The headpiece was connected to a backpack holding a battery and transmitter. Dr. Yorzinski captured 10 wild great-tailed grackles, which are common in Texas, to wear this get-up. She used only male birds, which are big enough to carry the equipment without trouble. Each bird wore the camera helmet and backpack while Dr. Yorzinski encouraged it to fly by chasing it across an outdoor enclosure. © 2020 The New York Times Company

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain; Chapter 6: Evolution of the Brain and Behavior
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 27636 - Posted: 12.22.2020

By Kelly Servick Do old and damaged cells remember what it was like to be young? That’s the suggestion of new study, in which scientists reprogrammed neurons in mouse eyes to make them more resistant to damage and able to regrow after injury—like the cells of younger mice. The study suggests that hallmarks of aging, and possibly the keys to reversing it, lie in the epigenome, the proteins and other compounds that decorate DNA and influence what genes are turned on or off. The idea that aging cells hold a memory of their young epigenome “is very provocative,” says Maximina Yun, a regenerative biologist at the Dresden University of Technology who was not involved in the work. The new study “supports that [idea], but by no means proves it,” she adds. If researchers can replicate these results in other animals and explain their mechanism, she says, the work could lead to treatments in humans for age-related disease in the eye and beyond. Epigenetic factors influence our metabolism, our susceptibility to various diseases, and even the way emotional trauma is passed through generations. Molecular biologist David Sinclair of Harvard Medical School, who has long been on the hunt for antiaging strategies, has also looked for signs of aging in the epigenome. “The big question was, is there a reset button?” he says. “Would cells know how to become younger and healthier?” In the new study, Sinclair and his collaborators aimed to rejuvenate cells by inserting genes that encode “reprogramming factors,” which regulate gene expression—the reading of DNA to make proteins. The team chose three of the four factors scientists have used for more than 10 years to turn adult cells into induced pluripotent stem cells, which resemble the cells of an early embryo. (Exposing animals to all four factors can cause tumors.) © 2020 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Related chapters from BN: Chapter 10: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Related chapters from MM:Chapter 7: Vision: From Eye to Brain
Link ID: 27608 - Posted: 12.05.2020